B RONZE A GE CIVILIZATIONS IN THE A EGEAN M INOAN C IVILIZATION ON THE ISLAND OF C RETE AND M YCENAEAN CIVILIZATION ON THE P ELOPONNESUS AND MAINLAND G REECE
T HE M EDITERRANEAN B ASIN INCLUDES PARTS OF THREE CONTINENTS : E UROPE , A SIA , AND A FRICA M INOAN CIVILIZATION WAS ESTABLISHED ON THE ISLAND OF C RETE IN THE LATE 3 rd MILLENNIUM BCE 1. Minoan Civilization represents THE LINK BETWEEN THE CIVILIZATIONS OF E GYPT , P HOENICIA , M ESOPOTAMIA , AND THE PROTO -G REEK M YCENAEAN C IVILIZATION 2. Minoans were traders who CONTROLLED A VAST TRADING NETWORK THROUGHOUT THE M EDITERRANEAN
There is a land called Crete in the midst of the wine-dark sea, a fair, rich land, begirt with water, and therein are many men, past counting, and ninety cities. They have not all the same speech, but their tongues are mixed. There dwell Achaeans, there great-hearted native Cretans, there Cydonians, and Dorians of waving plumes, and goodly Pelasgians. Among their cities is the great city Knossos, where Minos reigned when nine years old, he that held converse with great Zeus… Homer. The Odyssey with an English Translation by A.T. Murray, PH.D. in two volumes. Cambridge, MA., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann, Ltd. 1919.The Annenberg CPB/Project provided support for entering this text. Homer, Odyssey (19.172-179)
ca.9000 BCE A NCESTRAL N EOLITHIC POPULATION ARRIVED IN C RETE Some research indicates that the majority of Minoan DNA markers correspond to the population which came from Anatolia and Ancient Near East ca.2200-2000 BCE C ONSTRUCTION OF FIRST M INOAN PALACES IN C RETE ca.2000-1450 BCE M INOAN T HALASSOCRACY * IN THE M EDITERRANEAN 1. Minoans established TRADING COLONIES ON C YPRUS (source of copper) and on the A EGEAN I SLANDS (to gain access to markets where they could obtain tin) 2. Commercial contacts among M INOAN PALACE KINGDOMS on Crete, M YCENAEAN FORTRESS KINGDOMS on the Peloponnesus, P HOENICIAN CITY - STATES in the Levant, H ITTITE K INGDOM in Anatolia, and M IDDLE AND N EW K INGDOMS of Egypt ca.1900 BCE ca.1800 BCE M INOAN HIEROGLYPHS : probably E GYPTIAN influence — NOT DECIPHERED M INOANS INVENTED AND USED THE “L INEAR A” SCRIPT — PARTIALLY DECIPHERED ca.1630 BCE V OLCANIC ERUPTION ON THE ISLAND OF T HERA Destruction of Minoan coastal areas and ports T HALASSOCRACY = “R ULE OF THE S EA ” Thalassa ( θάλασσα ) = sea (Greek) + kratein ( κρατεῖν ) = power (Greek)
ca.1450 BCE M YCENAEANS INVADE AND OCCUPY C RETE 1. Dominance of the Mycenaeans on Crete 2. Decline of Minoan Civilization 3. “ L INEAR B” TABLETS : Mycenaeans adopted and ADAPT M INOAN “L INEAR A” TO WRITE IN THEIR OWN LANGUAGE (G REEK ) ca.1375 BCE D ESTRUCTION OF K NOSSOS E ND OF M INOAN C IVILIZATION
Sir Arthur Evans (1851-1941) discovered Knossos in 1899 S IR A RTHUR E VANS A B RITISH ARCHAEOLOGIST GAVE THE NAME "M INOAN " TO THE C RETAN CIVILIZATION , FROM K ING M
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