2Universal ValuesThe attitudes of people are based on the values they hold and live by. Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck's Values Orientation Theory proposes that all human societies must answer a limited number of universal problems, that the value-based solutions are limited in number and universally known, but that different cultures have different preferences among them. For this writing, I chose a YouTube video by Peggy Marcy which highlights Kluckhohn’s framework of values for cultures while also covering cross-cultural teaching in regard to values. Here are the six dominant themes of the value orientation: the self, the family, the society, human nature, nature, and the supernatural. The SelfRegardless of their culture, people develop their own self-identity. How their identity is cultivated is influenced by the values in that culture. In the U.S., people are seen as unique individuals and strive for independence from others. When individuals succeed or win, they receive a great deal of attention and praise. The individual is “put on a pedestal.” Likewise, whenindividuals lose, they are often left to suffer alone. No one wants to be seen with a loser. Whetheron the top or on the bottom, the individual experiences intense emotions. The second variation ofthe self is age. Low-context cultures tend to value youth. Conversely, old age is valued in many cultures, such as Nigeria, where it is associated with wisdom. “In Nigeria the elderly is respectedbecause they have much experience and can pass on family history and tradition”[UniNd]. This could come into play in the aviation industry as some companies may believe that experience comes with time, however, and unfortunately people age over time. As a result of FAA regulations and the stereotypical infirmities that come with age, many airlines systematically discriminate against older pilots when making employment decisions, with the frequent result that a relatively inexperienced pilot is promoted to captain.