administrators-guide.pdf - Citrix XenServer \u00ae 7.1 Administrator's Guide Published November 2018 1.0 Edition Citrix XenServer \u00ae 7.1 Administrator's

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Unformatted text preview: Citrix XenServer ® 7.1 Administrator's Guide Published November 2018 1.0 Edition Citrix XenServer ® 7.1 Administrator's Guide Copyright © 2018 Citrix Systems. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Version: 7.1 Citrix, Inc. 851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort Lauderdale, FL 33309 United States of America Disclaimers This document is furnished "AS IS." Citrix, Inc. disclaims all warranties regarding the contents of this document, including, but not limited to, implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for any particular purpose. This document may contain technical or other inaccuracies or typographical errors. Citrix, Inc. reserves the right to revise the information in this document at any time without notice. This document and the software described in this document constitute confidential information of Citrix, Inc. and its licensors, and are furnished under a license from Citrix, Inc. Citrix, the Citrix logo, Citrix XenServer and Citrix XenCenter, and other trademarks appearing herein are the property of Citrix Systems, Inc, or one or more of its subsidiaries, and may be registered in the United States Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other trademarks and registered trademarks are property of their respective owners. Trademarks Citrix® XenServer ® XenCenter ® Contents 1. Document Overview ...................................................................................... 1 1.1. Introducing XenServer .................................................................................................. 1 1.1.1. Benefits of Using XenServer ............................................................................... 1 1.1.2. Administering XenServer .................................................................................... 2 1.2. XenServer Documentation ............................................................................................ 2 2. Managing Users ............................................................................................. 3 2.1. Authenticating Users With Active Directory (AD) ............................................................ 3 2.1.1. Configuring Active Directory Authentication ........................................................ 4 2.1.2. User Authentication ........................................................................................... 7 2.1.3. Removing Access for a User ............................................................................... 8 2.1.4. Leaving an AD Domain ....................................................................................... 9 2.2. Role Based Access Control ............................................................................................ 9 2.2.1. Roles ............................................................................................................... 10 2.2.2. Definitions of RBAC Roles and Permissions ........................................................ 11 2.2.3. Using RBAC with the CLI .................................................................................. 17 2.2.3.1. To List All the Available Defined Roles in XenServer ................................. 17 2.2.3.2. To Display a List of Current Subjects: ...................................................... 18 2.2.3.3. To Add a Subject to RBAC ...................................................................... 18 2.2.3.4. To Assign an RBAC Role to a Created subject .......................................... 18 2.2.3.5. To Change a Subject's RBAC Role: .......................................................... 19 2.2.4. Auditing ........................................................................................................... 19 2.2.4.1. Audit Log xe CLI Commands .................................................................. 19 2.2.4.2. To Obtain All Audit Records From the Pool ............................................. 19 2.2.4.3. To Obtain Audit Records of the Pool Since a Precise Millisecond Timestamp ........................................................................................................ 19 2.2.4.4. To Obtain Audit Records of the Pool Since a Precise Minute Timestamp ........................................................................................................ 19 2.2.5. How Does XenServer Compute the Roles for the Session? .................................. 19 3. XenServer Hosts and Resource Pools .......................................................... 21 3.1. Hosts and Resource Pools Overview ............................................................................ 21 iii 3.2. Requirements for Creating Resource Pools ................................................................... 21 3.3. Creating a Resource Pool ............................................................................................ 22 3.4. Creating Heterogeneous Resource Pools ...................................................................... 23 3.5. Adding Shared Storage ................................................................................................ 23 3.6. Removing a XenServer Host from a Resource Pool ........................................................ 24 3.7. Preparing a Pool of XenServer hosts for Maintenance ................................................... 24 3.8. Export Resource Pool Data .......................................................................................... 25 3.8.1. To Export Resource Data .................................................................................. 27 3.9. High Availability .......................................................................................................... 27 3.9.1. HA Overview ................................................................................................... 27 3.9.1.1. Overcommitting .................................................................................... 28 3.9.1.2. Overcommitment Warning .................................................................... 28 3.9.1.3. Host Fencing ......................................................................................... 28 3.9.2. Configuration Requirements ............................................................................. 28 3.9.3. Restart configuration settings ........................................................................... 29 3.9.3.1. Start order ............................................................................................ 30 3.10. Enabling HA on your XenServer Pool ......................................................................... 30 3.10.1. Enabling HA Using the CLI .............................................................................. 30 3.10.2. Removing HA Protection from a VM using the CLI ............................................ 31 3.10.3. Recovering an Unreachable Host .................................................................... 31 3.10.4. Shutting Down a host When HA is Enabled ..................................................... 31 3.10.5. Shutting Down a VM When it is Protected by HA ............................................. 32 3.11. Host Power On ......................................................................................................... 32 3.11.1. Powering on Hosts Remotely .......................................................................... 32 3.11.2. Using the CLI to Manage Host Power On ......................................................... 32 3.11.2.1. To Enable Host Power On Using the CLI ................................................ 32 3.11.2.2. To Turn on Hosts Remotely Using the CLI .............................................. 33 3.11.3. Configuring a Custom Script for XenServer's Host Power On Feature ................. 33 3.11.3.1. Key/Value Pairs ................................................................................... 33 3.11.3.1.1. host.power_on_mode ............................................................... 33 3.11.3.1.2. host.power_on_config .............................................................. 34 iv 3.11.3.2. Sample Script ...................................................................................... 34 3.12. Communicating with XenServer hosts and Resource Pools .......................................... 34 4. Networking ................................................................................................... 36 4.1. Networking Support .................................................................................................... 36 4.2. vSwitch Networks ....................................................................................................... 36 4.3. XenServer Networking Overview ................................................................................. 37 4.3.1. Network Objects .............................................................................................. 38 4.3.2. Networks ......................................................................................................... 38 4.3.3. VLANs ............................................................................................................. 38 4.3.3.1. Using VLANs with Management Interfaces ............................................. 38 4.3.3.2. Using VLANs with Virtual Machines ........................................................ 38 4.3.3.3. Using VLANs with Dedicated Storage NICs .............................................. 38 4.3.3.4. Combining Management Interfaces and Guest VLANs on a Single Host NIC ................................................................................................................... 39 4.3.4. Jumbo frames .................................................................................................. 39 4.3.5. NIC Bonds ....................................................................................................... 39 4.3.5.1. Active-Active Bonding ............................................................................ 41 4.3.5.2. Active-Passive Bonding .......................................................................... 42 4.3.5.3. LACP Link Aggregation Control Protocol Bonding ..................................... 44 4.3.5.4. Switch Configuration ............................................................................. 46 4.3.5.4.1. Switch Configuration for LACP Bonds ........................................... 47 4.3.6. Initial Networking Configuration after Setup ...................................................... 47 4.3.7. Changing Networking Configuration .................................................................. 48 4.3.7.1. Modifying the Network Object ............................................................... 48 4.3.8. Changing the Up Delay for Bonds ..................................................................... 48 4.4. Managing Networking Configuration ........................................................................... 49 4.4.1. Cross-Server Private Networks .......................................................................... 49 4.4.2. Creating Networks in a Standalone Server ......................................................... 50 4.4.3. Creating Networks in Resource Pools ................................................................ 50 4.4.4. Creating VLANs ................................................................................................ 50 4.4.5. Creating NIC Bonds on a Standalone Host ......................................................... 51 v 4.4.5.1. Creating a NIC Bond .............................................................................. 51 4.4.5.2. Controlling the MAC Address of the Bond .............................................. 51 4.4.5.3. Reverting NIC Bonds .............................................................................. 52 4.4.6. Creating NIC Bonds in Resource Pools ............................................................... 52 4.4.7. Configuring a Dedicated Storage NIC ................................................................. 53 4.4.8. Using SR-IOV Enabled NICs ............................................................................... 54 4.4.9. Controlling the Rate of Outgoing Data (QoS) ..................................................... 55 4.4.10. Changing Networking Configuration Options ................................................... 55 4.4.10.1. Hostname ........................................................................................... 56 4.4.10.2. DNS Servers ........................................................................................ 56 4.4.10.3. Changing IP Address Configuration for a Standalone Host ...................... 56 4.4.10.4. Changing IP Address Configuration in Resource Pools ............................ 56 4.4.10.5. Management Interface ........................................................................ 57 4.4.10.6. Disabling Management Access ............................................................. 57 4.4.10.7. Adding a New Physical NIC .................................................................. 58 4.4.10.8. Using Switch Port Locking .................................................................... 58 4.4.10.8.1. Requirements ........................................................................... 58 4.4.10.8.2. Notes ....................................................................................... 58 4.4.10.8.3. Implementation Notes .............................................................. 59 4.4.10.8.4. Examples .................................................................................. 59 4.4.10.8.5. How Switch-port Locking Works ................................................ 60 4.4.10.8.6. VIF Locking-Mode States ........................................................... 60 4.4.10.8.7. Configuring Switch Port Locking ................................................ 61 4.4.10.8.8. Preventing a Virtual Machine from Sending or Receiving Traffic from a Specific Network ............................................................................ 62 4.4.10.8.9. Removing a VIF's Restriction to an IP Address ............................. 63 4.4.10.8.10. Simplifying VIF Locking Mode Configuration in the Cloud ........... 63 4.4.10.8.11. Using Network Settings for VIF Traffic Filtering ......................... 64 4.5. Networking Troubleshooting ....................................................................................... 64 4.5.1. Diagnosing Network Corruption ........................................................................ 64 4.5.2. Emergency Network Reset ............................................................................... 65 4.5.2.1. Verifying the Network Reset .................................................................. 65 vi 4.5.2.2. Using the CLI for Network Reset ............................................................ 65 4.5.2.2.1. Pool Master Command Line Examples ......................................... 67 4.5.2.2.2. Pool Member Command Line Examples ....................................... 67 5. Storage ......................................................................................................... 69 5.1. Storage Overview ....................................................................................................... 69 5.1.1. Storage Repositories (SRs) ................................................................................ 69 5.1.2. Virtual Disk Image (VDI) ................................................................................... 69 5.1.3. Physical Block Devices (PBDs) ........................................................................... 69 5.1.4. Virtual Block Devices (VBDs) ............................................................................. 70 5.1.5. Summary of Storage objects ............................................................................. 70 5.1.6. Virtual Disk Data Formats ................................................................................. 70 5.1.6.1. VDI Types ............................................................................................. 70 5.1.6.2. Creating a Raw Virtual Disk Using the xe CLI ........................................... 70 5.1.6.3. Converting Between VDI Formats ........................................................... 71 5.1.6.4. VHD-based VDIs .................................................................................... 71 5.2. Storage Repository Formats ........................................................................................ 72 5.2.1. Local LVM ........................................................................................................ 72 5.2.1.1. LVM Performance Considerations ........................................................... 72 5.2.1.2. Creating a Local LVM SR (lvm) ................................................................ 73 5.2.2. Local EXT3 ....................................................................................................... 73 5.2.2.1. Creating a Local EXT3 SR (ext) ................................................................ 73 5.2.3. udev ................................................................................................................ 73 5.2.4. ISO .................................................................................................................. 74 5.2.5. Software iSCSI Support ..................................................................................... 74 5.2.5.1. XenServer host iSCSI configuration ......................................................... 74 5.2.6. Software FCoE Storage ..................................................................................... 75 5.2.6.1. Creating a Software FCoE SR .................................................................. 75 5.2.7. Hardware Host Bus Adapters (HBAs) ................................................................. 75 5.2.7.1. Sample QLogic iSCSI HBA setup ............................................................. 75 5.2.7.2. Removing HBA-based SAS, FC or iSCSI Device Entries .............................. 76 5.2.8. Shared LVM Storage ......................................................................................... 76 vii 5.2.8.1. Creating a Shared LVM Over iSCSI SR Using the Software iSCSI Initiator (lvmoiscsi) ......................................................................................................... 76 5.2.8.2. Creating a Shared LVM over Fibre Channel / Fibre Channel over Ethernet / iSCSI HBA or SAS SR (lvmohba) .......................................................... 77 5.2.9. NFS and SMB ................................................................................................... 79 5.2.9.1. Creating a Shared NFS SR (NFS) ............................................................. 79 5.2.9.2. Creating a Shared SMB SR (SMB) ........................................................... 80 5.2.10. LVM over Hardware HBA ................................................................................ 81 5.3. Storage Configuration ................................................................................................. 81 5.3.1. Creating Storage Repositories ........................................................................... 81 5.3.2. Probing an SR .................................................................................................. 82 5.4. Storage Multipathing .................................................................................................. 84 5.5. XenServer and IntelliCache .......................................................................................... 85 5.5.1. IntelliCache Deployment .................................................................................. 85 5.5.1.1. Enabling on H...
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