CHAPTER 8, THE JEFFERSONIANS IN OFFICE What issues divided the new nation? History 17 1.What was surprising about James Madison’s Seventh Annual Message? - He recommended a national bank to stabilize the nation’s finances, a protective tariff for domestic industry, program for building roads and canals, and a national seminary of learning within the District of Columbia to be financed by federal government. These were all ideas Hamilton wanted and Madison was against, but now he is asking for what Hamilton wanted. 2. Jefferson quiets the fear of his enemies - He wanted unity. His party would respect the funded debt created by Hamilton and the rights of federalist minority. Although there were two parties (F&AF) they were “brethren of the same principle.” Republicans would not turn country into the way it was before the Constitution. State governments have their rights but the general government’s power is important too. 3. Sally Hemings - A slave who was owned by Thomas Jefferson. Recent DNA evidence shows it was probable that Jefferson, a widower, was the father of one and possibly more of her four surviving children. Journalist James Callender attacked Jefferson as a hypocrite for taking advantage of the master- slave relationship. 4. Federalist laws repealed - Secretary of the treasury (Albert Gallatin of Penn) reduced national debt by cutting down appropriations for army and navy. Several internal taxes Federalists had imposed were taken away. Repealed some of the Alien and Sedition Acts, others expired, and released all those imprisoned for sedition. In 1802 the federal government sold its share of bank stock at a profit and left the banking business. 5. Importance of Marbury v. Madison - (1803) Case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution. The decision established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress (Judiciary Act of 1789). The first time the US Supreme Court declared a federal law unconstitutional. It established the supreme court as the final arbiter of law. 6. Louisiana Purchase - A treaty signed with France in 1803 by which the U.S. purchased for $15 million the land extending from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains and from Canada to the Gulf of mexico. This purchase secured American control of the Mississippi river and doubled the size of the nation. 7. Lewis and Clark Expedition - (1804-1806) Overland expedition to the Pacific coast lead by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. Commissioned by President Jefferson, the expedition of the far west brought back a wealth of scientific data about the country and its resources. Gathered information on the United States' new land and map a route from the Mississippi to the Pacific. They kept maps and records of this new land acquired from the Louisiana Purchase.
8. Wilkinson-Burr Conspiracy - Conspiracy led by Burr and helped along by Wilkinson, Burr planned on creating an independent nation in the center of North America and the Southwest and parts of Mexico.