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24 Outline Toward the Modern Consciousness: Intellectual and Cultural Developments Developments in the Sciences: The Emergence of a New Physics The Work Of Einstein Toward a New Understanding of the Irrational Nietzsche Bergson Sorel ideas generated during scientific revolution and enlightenment reason, science, progress higher standard of living, mass education, urban improvements, modern technology electric lights, phonographs, cinema, automobiles new ideals about human mind and nature caused confusion and anxiety development of physics Marie Curie element radium gives off rays of radiation that come from the atom itself Max Planck Berlin Physicist rejected the idea that a heated body radiates energy in a steady stream instead, energy is radiated discontinuously, in irregular packets called quanta Albert Einstein German pushed theories of thermodynamics “The Electro-Dynamics of Moving Bodies” contained his theory of relativity relativity theory: space and time are absolute but relative to the observer matter is a form of energy E = mc 2 ; lead to atomic age decade of contradictory developments confidence in human progress and reason remains dominant some people declared the idea of optimistic progress as irrational Friedrich Nietzsche Western bourgeoisie was decadent and incapable of any real cultural creativity emphasis on rational faculty at the expense of emotions, passions, instincts humans are at the mercy of irrational life forces Christianity should shoulder some blame for the the bourgeoisie’s enfeeblement “slave morality” of Christianity obliterated the human impulse for life and crushed the human will one must recognize that God is dead rejected and condemned political democracy, social reform and universal suffrage Henri Bergson lectured at University of Paris accepted rational and scientific thought reality is the “life force” that suffused all things; it can not be divided into analyzable forces
Sigmund Freud and Psychoanalysis Role Of The Unconsciousness The Impact of Darwin Social Darwinism Racism The Attack on Christianity Georges Sorel interest in revolutionary socialism general strike; mythic image had the power to influence workers to take violent and heroic action against the capitalistic order Sigmund Freud theories that undermined optimism about the rational nature if the human mind added more uncertainty and confusion to the age The Interpretation of Dreams contained foundation of psychoanalysis human behavior strongly determined by the unconsciousness relied on hypnosis and dreams repression; unsettling experiences were blotted from conscious awareness but still continue to influence behavior because they have become apart of the consciousness i d : center of unconscious drives and is ruled by pleasure human desire, impulse ego

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