CJ 262 Final Exam Review

CJ 262 Final Exam Review - Criminology-Final Review Section...

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Criminology-Final Review Section 1- Theories Subculture of Violence Theory o Assumes each subculture has its own set of norms (“code of the streets”) that dictate how individuals should act under various circumstances o Violence is an acceptable means of dispute resolution and is passed down from generation to generation o When kids are socialized into a violent subculture, they must adapt (survival of the fittest) in order to survive o Criticism: Why don’t all inner-city residents conform their behavior to the “code of the streets”? What about the upper and middle class youth who commit crime? Atavism (Lombroso) o Criminal offenders were seen as “atavists”, “biological accidents” or “throw-backs” to a more primitive stage in evolutionary development Feminist Theory o Created by men and reflects male interests and ideologies (patriarchy) o Criminal law reflects the interest of the powerful classes o Argues that women as a whole, represent the subordinate class in society Social Disorganization Theory o Divided Chicago into 5 concentric zones o Discovered that the innermost zone differed from the outermost zone o Crime rates in the innermost zones remained higher due to the disorganization and break down of norms and bonds o Race and ethnicity were insignificant Phrenology (Gall) o 3 major regions of the skull: Intellectual region Moral region Lower region o Lower region was associated with criminal behavior, in which the lower region also appears larger in criminals Differential Association Theory (Sutherland) o Social encounters/exposure people encounter determine their behavior o Crime is learned through social interaction where one communicates, learning skills and rationalizations o Ratio of Exposure (criminal to non-criminal) that determines when one will engage in crime Deterrence/Rational Choice Theory o Hedonistic calculus o People are capable of looking at the cost-benefit analysis. People choose to commit crime because the benefits outweigh the costs o If punishment is swift and certain, then people will associate the crime with the punishment and deter from crime Routine Activities Theory o Crime occurs due to the interaction with 3 variables: 1) availability of suitable targets 2) absence of capable guardians 3) presence of motivated offenders
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o Motivated people are most likely to commit crime o Criticism: it doesn’t explain the root causes of crime, or what “motivates” the offender in the first place Social Learning Theory (Bandura) o Violence can be learned from: family, culture/subculture, and the media o Crime is learned through modeling and conditioning o Criticism: why don’t all children who are socialized in violent families pattern their behavior accordingly Psychoanalytic Theory (Freud) o Personality development occurs in early childhood in various stages o Impact of the past on the present
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CJ 262 Final Exam Review - Criminology-Final Review Section...

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