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1Week 4 Discussion: Pharmacotherapy for Respiratory Disorders
2Acute infectious rhinitis, also known as the common cold, nasopharyngitis, rhinopharyngitis, or acute coryza, is caused by one of more than 200 viral types and most commonly involves rhinovirus (Arcangelo et al., 2017). The common cold is a viral upper respiratory infection. It is widely spread in all countries and more common in crowded areas and small children. Most cases of the common cold usually occur during the winter months. Common cold symptoms are usually fever, sore throat, frequent sneezing, nasal congestion, watery eyes, and coryza. Coryza is an acute inflammation of the mucous membranes of the respiratory passages, particularly of the nose, sinuses, and throat, and is characterized by sneezing, rhinorrhea or watery nasal discharge, and coughing (Arcangelo et al., 2017). The common cold is the third most common primary diagnosis in office visits (Fashner et al., 2012). The virus is spread anywhere through the direct or indirect contact with secretions of the infectedpeople. The incubation period can vary and lasts nearly two days. Afterward, the peak of the symptoms lasts for 1–3 days, and the infected feel relief after 7–10 days (Allan & Arroll, 2014). The symptoms and the period associated with the common cold can vary depending on many factors including the age, the lifestyle, and the immune system functioning.
3The researchers prove that age is one of the crucial factors that predetermines the frequency of the cold occurrences throughout the year. In particular, for children, both the frequency of the cold occurrences and severity of the symptoms is higher than among the adults. Children under two years are the most vulnerable to viruses and can have 4-8 infections per year (Eckel et al., 2014). For the adults, the number of these infections decreases at least twice. The statistics determined by the characteristics of the immune system functioning in different age andunder different factors. For instance, stress and poor sleep often lead to higher risks of the common cold among adults (Allan & Arroll, 2014). Instead, the primary reasons that make children get ill more often are the missing or low immunity that needs to be acquired (Eckel et al., 2014). Very often, the healthcare providers focus on the therapy that is aimed to ensure temporary relief of such symptoms like a cough, running nose and fever.
4Upper respiratory infections (URIs) are diagnosed by reviewing the patient’s medical history and performing a physical exam. There are also diagnostic tests that may be used to diagnose URIs but is not recommended. These tests include a throat swab for rapid virus culture, chest x-ray, and CT scan. Upper respiratory infection can cause complications such as acute sinusitis, otitis media (ear infection), bronchitis or pneumonia.
5Nonpharmacologic therapy such as rest, increase fluid intake and frequent handwashing is the first line of treatment and prevention. Upper respiratory infections are mostly treated for
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Common cold, Arcangelo, Upper respiratory tract infection