Class Notes - Chapters 5 & 6 (1).docx

Class Notes - Chapters 5 & 6 (1).docx - CHAPTERS 5 6...

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CHAPTERS 5 & 6 – Class Notes Chapter 5 – Fiefdom and Monastery, Pilgrimage and Crusade Nota Bene: READ THE INTRO – PAGES 147-148! Middle Ages/Medieval era 1. Purse cover from Sutton Hoo site: animal/interlasce - artistic style of non-Christian Germanic culture – cloisonné – strips of gold on edge for small cells that are filled with colored enamel glass and fitted with slices of semi-precious stones (garnet). What does hoo mean? (peninsula or spur of land or hill) 2. English language – Days of the week – from Anglo-Saxon gods – Tuesday = Tiw – Wednesday = Woden – both gods of war. Thursday = Thor (god of thunder) – Friday = Frigg (Woden’s wife) 3. Feudal system: King – possessed own large estate – moved among estates of thanes. Thanes – Lords who possessed own estates – owed hospitality and loyalty to King/throne. Peasants – Ceorls or churls – free men who owned farms of 90-100 acres. Some rented land from Thanes. Paid lord in goods – sheep/grain – worked his fields 2 or 3 days a week. Serfs – day laborers Thralls – slaves – often captives of war Anglo-Saxon law based on “wergeld” – life-price of an individual – Thane’s value was 6 times that of a churl – a thrall had no value. 4. Beowulf – oldest English epic poem – written in Old English (predating the merging of English and French tongues in 1066 CE) – between 700 – 1000 CE. Like the Greeks, the poem was first handed down orally and later transcribed. English poem but events are in Scandinavia. Story: Beowulf travels to the Danes to kill Grendel which is terrorizing King Hrothgar’s kingdom. Hrothgar warns Beowulf that life is fleeting. He and his men slay Grendel and Grendel’s mother. Beowulf returns to Sweden and rules well for 50 years. A dragon menaces his people, and Beowulf thinks he is the only one who can kill it (self- confidence/pride/hubris). The dragon kills him even though he demonstrates fierce courage and true loyalty to his vassals. “The poem teaches its audience that power, strength, fame, and life itself are fleeting – a theme consonant with Christian values, but by no means necessarily Christian. And although Beowulf, in his arguably foolhardy courage at the end of the poem, displays a Christlike 1
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willingness to sacrifice himself for the greater good; the honor and courage he exhibits are fully in keeping with the values of feudal warrior culture.” 5. Carolingian Culture Christianity was quickly established on European continent When Germanic tribes moved westward in the 4 th century, they adopted most of the Christian beliefs of the Roman culture they conquered. Ostrogoths  Italy Visigoths  southern France and Spain Vandals  North Africa Franks – most of modern France – The Song of Roland – epic poem - France Charlemagne – Charles the Great – (r. 768-814 CE) Carolingian era from Carolus – Latin for Charles. Brought various brands of Christianity together – submit to Rome’s Nicene Creed. His
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  • Spring '18
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