實驗零 器皿容積的校正.pdf - 實驗...

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實驗零 器皿容積的校正 生技 110 C64079102 梁亦采 一、 實驗目的 1. 避免實驗誤差,以確保量測溶液體積,或是滴定分析時的準確度。 2. 學習容量瓶的檢漏、洗滌 3. 學習滴定管的洗滌、下端氣泡的清除 二、 實驗原理 器皿為何需要校正?因為吸管、容量瓶和滴定管是滴定分析用的主要量器。受到 空氣浮力(溫度變化時空氣對水 和砝碼的浮力改變)和 溫度的影響(液體密度、容器材料的體膨脹系數均隨溫度而變化)。使得量器的實際與標 準容量總是有一定的差值。如果校正的準確度要求較高,而且溫度又超出 293 ± 5K ,大氣壓力及濕度變化又較大時, 則應根據實測時的溫度、空氣壓力和相對濕度計算空氣密度。公式如下: 校正方法:利用物質(如:水和玻璃)熱脹冷縮的特性,測量已知密度和溫度的水之質量。 下表提供了校正的簡單計算資料: 溫度 T O C 溫度 T 校正至 20 O c 溫度 T O C 溫度 T 校正至 20 O c 10 1.0013 1.0016 21 1.0030 1.0030 11 1.0014 1.0016 22 1.0033 1.0032 12 1.0015 1.0017 23 1.0035 1.0034 13 1.0016 1.0018 24 1.0037 1.0036 14 1.0018 1.0019 25 1.0040 1.0037 15 1.0019 1.0020 26 1.0043 1.0041 16 1.0021 1.0022 27 1.0045 1.0043 17 1.0022 1.0023 28 1.0048 1.0046 18 1.0024 1.0025 29 1.0051 1.0048 19 1.0026 1.0026 30 1.0054 1.0052 20 1.0028 1.0028 對於浮力效應、水與玻璃容器體積變化已合併在這些數據中。乘以表中適當因數,就可以將其他溫度( T )所量得水 的質量換算成該溫度或 20 ℃以下之標準體積。 三、 實驗步驟 玻璃器皿的清洗 1. 用自來水沖洗玻璃器皿。 2. 用毛刷沾上 10 20mL 清潔劑仔細刷洗 注意:勿使鋼條尖端刮傷器皿而導致該器皿破裂,或是造成劃痕,從而引起容積的變化。 3. 用自來水沖洗至無清潔劑殘留。 4.
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