1/9Citizenship: technical matterInformed and active membership in a political communityParticipation requires some knowledge of how the politics and government work.Regime types:2 axes: who governs (how many)?What limits are there on government power?Autocracies 民主专政: single individual (monarchs, or dictatorship)Oligarchies 寡头专政: rule by the few (landowners, wealthy, military officers)Democracies: rule by the many: permits citizens to play a significant part in gov’tprocesses.Constitutional (or liberal) gov’ts: these have a lot of limits (bill of rights, limited powers)Authoritarian gov’ts: gov’t recognizes no formal limits but some competing institutionsare allowed. Allowed churches.Totalitarian gov’ts: gov’t does not allow any competing institutions. (Germany in WW2.No opposition idea, no group meeting privately)Limiting gov’t and its history: 1215 Magna Carta (still have monarchy)1600s: rise of merchant class1776 U.S Revolutionary War and the first modern constitution that designs a representativedemocracy (republic)Democracy:2 typesDirect democracy: where the citizens make decisions on policy (withoutrepresentatives).Representative democracy: the citizens elect people to represent them; therepresentatives make policy on behalf of the people.Pluralism 多 元 化: the theory that all interests are and should be free to compete forinfluence over gov’t.Direct Action politics: civil disobedience, protesting, going into the streets to demandchange.Who are Americans? Immigration: tend to induce fear among people; zeonophobia 排外主义African Americans are not citizens until passage of the 14thAmendment, 1865Chinese: 1882 Chinese Exclusionary Act; 1943 reversed when China is our ally in WW2.1/111763 the end of the French and Indian WarPeople don’t want small revolution, for it’s bloodyMERCANTILISMWhat type of economic system or taxes that British tax on US? Merchant tax
(Adam Smith writes the Wealth of Nations)1777 Continental Congress writes the Article of Confederation (not a true gov’t)(1789 French revolution)1786 Fall: Annapolis Convention, alter the Article of Confederation, another meeting in Philly1786 Winter: Shay’s Rebellion, can’t pay anything, so close 1/145 identifiable groups in the colonies at this timeNew England merchantsSouthern plantersThe “royalists” holders of royal land, offices, and patentsShopkeepers, artisans, and laborersSmall farmers1786 Shay’s Rebellion1787 May: a meeting in Philadelphia, Constitutional Convention2 main debatesWhat will the design of our legislature be?