exam_3_review - ISS 225 Review Sheet for Third Exam A...

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ISS 225: Review Sheet for Third Exam A. Public Opinion What is public opinion? THE SUM OF INDIVIDUAL ATTITUDES OR BELIEFS ABOUT AN ISSUE OR QUESTION. What is the difference between the Delegate Model of Representative Democracy vs. the Trustee system of democracy? DELEGATE MODEL OF REP- ELECTED OFFICIALS ARE OBLIGATED TO SEEK OUT AND FOLLOW THE VIEWS OF THEIR CONSTITUENCY WHEN THEY MAKE POLITICAL DECISIONS. (THIS ASSUMES THAT THERE IS AN INFORMED PUBLIC AND ACCURATE POLLS.) TRUSTEE-ELECTED OFFICIALS ARE THE EXPERTS SO THEY SHOULD MAKE DECISIONS WHICH THEY FEEL ARE CORRECT WHETHER OR NOT THEY ARE SUPPORTED BY PUBLIC OPINION. (THIS ASSUMES THAT THERE IS AN UNINFORMED PUBLIC.) What is survey research? THE IDEA IS TO SAMPLE A SUBSET OF THE POPULATOIN THAT YOU ARE INTERESTED IN. ACCORDING TO “SCIENCE” THIS IS ALL WE NEED. Census and politics: what is the debate between the Republicans and Democrats? REPUBLICANS FAVOR ACTUAL COUNT AND DEMOCRATICS FAVOR SAMPLING. What is the true sample and what the problem with it? A TRUE SAMPLE IS GENERATED TO MAKE INFERENCES ABOUT THE POPULATION. THE POPULATION IS THE GROUP THE SURVEY RESEARCHER IS INTERESTED IN. THE PROBLEM WITH THIS IS THAT THE TRUE SAMPLE IS ALMOST NEVER GENERATED. What is a Representative sample? EVERY ATTRIBUTE OF THE SUBPOPULATION SHOULD BE LIKE THE REAL POPULATION (GENDER AGE RACE…ETC.) TO GET IT YOU NEED A RANDOM SAMPLE. What is a random sample and the problems of generating one? IN A RANDOM SAMPLE EACH AND EVERY PERSON IN THE ENTIRE POPULATION HAS AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY TO BE SELECTED FOR THE ANALYSIS. PROBLEMS: IS THERE REALLY ANY SUCH THING AS PURE RANDOMNESS? -CERTAIN GROUPS DO NOT RESPOND TO SURVEYS. -INCREASE IN SOLICITAION, JUNK MAIL ETC HAS CAUSED A LOW RESPOND TO SURVEYS. -THE METHOD USED IS OFTEN FLAWED. -TRUE SAMPLE DOES NOT EQUAL GENERATED SAMPLE. -THEY JUST TRY TO GET TO THE REAL THING. What is the Literary digest example that occurred in 1936? LONDON CHOSEN TO WIN BY CAR OWNERS BUT THERE, ONLY RICH PEOPLE HAD CARS. What are the following:
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The population size (homogeneity) THE DEGREES TO WHICH MEMBERS OF A POPULATION ARE ALIKE IN TERMS OF CHARACTERISTICS WE ARE INTERESTED IN STUDYING. THE MORE HETEROGENEOUS THE POPULATION THE MORE WE HAVE TO SAMPLE. ONCE THE SAMPLE SIZE REACHES A CERTAIN SIZE THEN THE POPULATION SAMPLE SIZES ARE THE SAME. (100,000) Margin of error (How to calculate) DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE TRUE SAMPLE AND THE SAMPLE WE GENERATED. Level of confidence HOW CONFIDENT AM I THAT THE MARGIN OF ERROR I CHOSE IS CORRECT? WHEN YOU ARE DOING A POLL YOU CHOOSE HOW CONFIDENT YOU ARE. What is Instrumentation? (QUESTION WORDING) ---THE PROCESS OF DESIGNING SURVEY QUESTIONS. What is the problem with question wording in surveys? THE WAY IN WHICH A QUESTION IS WORDED CAN AFFECT THE RESPONSE THAT A PERSON GIVES. IT IS ARGUED THAT A GOOD POLLSTER CAN ACHIEVE ANY DESIREABLE RESULT. What is the problem with who sponsored a survey? ITS BIASED.
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This note was uploaded on 03/30/2008 for the course ISS 225 taught by Professor Williams during the Spring '07 term at Michigan State University.

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exam_3_review - ISS 225 Review Sheet for Third Exam A...

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