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07 The Brain and Cranial Nerves 3-26-19.pdf - ANTHP 306:...

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ANTHP 306: Human AnatomyThe Brain and Cranial Nerves
Primates have largebrains for mammals
The BrainControl center of central nervous system (CNS)Occupies endocranial cavity of the skullEnclosed by 3 layers of meningesDura MaterArachnoid MaterPia MaterCerebrospinal Fluid produced in ventricles within the brain(subarachnoid space)
The BrainComposed of:Unmyelinated neuronsMyelinated neuronsClusters of nerve cell bodiesSupper cellsGray matter: neuron cell bodies and unmyelinated fibers that occupy theouter convoluted layer of the cerebrum and cerebellumWhite matter: myelinated axons that form fiber tracts deep to the cortex.Basal Nuclei: clusters of gray matter that are formed by nerve cell bodiesdeep within the white matter.
The Brain3 components:Rhombencephalon(hindbrain): Medulla Oblongata, Pons,Cerebellum. Houses the Fourth Ventricle.Mesencephalon(midbrain): Cerebral Aqueduct, which connectsthird and fourth ventricles.Prosencephalon(forebrain): Diencephalon and Cerebrum, orTelencephalon. The diencephalon comprises the Thalami andsurrounds the third ventricle.The Cerebrum is composed of two large hemispheres connectedto one another by the Corpus Callosum.
mediansagittal sectionseparating hemispheresForebrainMidbrainHindbrain
The medulla oblongata is atransitional zone betweenthe brain stem and thespinal cord.1 of 3 parts of brain stemCranial Nerves IIIXIIEmerge from brain stemRegulates vomiting,breathing, sneezing,coughing, swallowing,monitors carbon dioxide inthe bloodmedulla oblongataspinal cordRhombencephalon
RhombencephalonCerebellumponsmedulla oblongataThepons(‘bridge’) connects the two hemispheres ofthe cerebellum and also connects it with the medullaand the mid- and forebrain.Themedulla oblongataleads intothe spinal cord.mediansagittal sectionPons
Thecerebellumhas a cortex withthreedistinct layers of cells.Like in the cerebrum the cortex isfolded.The cerebellum controls bodyposition (balance) and movementin progress; it is the error-detecting device for goal-directedmovements; i.e., it ‘monitors’movements in progress andinitiates adjustments as needed.Rhombencephaloncontinuedmediansagittalsectioncortexwhite matter(fiber tracts)
MesencephalonConnects rhombencephalonand prosencephalonComprises two halvesCruraCerebri. Ventrolateral halvesareCerebral Pedunclesconvey all somatic motorimpulses between cerebralcortex and spinal cord*+mediansagittal section
Inferior view of mesencephalon:cerebralpeduncles= Crura cerebriNote thecranial nervesentering and exiting themesencephalon andadjacent rhombencephalon.Mesencephaloncontinuedinferior viewconvey all somatic motorimpulses between cerebralcortex and spinal cord
Mesencephalonand Pons ofRhombencephalon(inferior view):IIIIVVVIVII, VIIIIX, X, XIXIIponsCranial nerves IIIXIIenter/exit the tegmentum ofthe mesencephalon andrhombencephalon insequence from front toback.

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Term
Fall
Professor
EvaGarrett
Tags
Dura mater, CN III, Tensor Tympani, Chorda Tympani, superior sagittal sinus

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