SCI 106 Biology Term Book

SCI 106 Biology Term Book - March 12th 2008 General Biology...

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March 12 th , 2008 General Biology Terminology Book for Second Exam Examples: 1. Cytoplasm - It is composed mainly of water and also contains enzymes, salts, organelles, and various organic molecules. The cytoplasm helps to move materials around the cell and also dissolves cellular waste. 2. Genetic Material - a gene, a part of a gene, a group of genes, or fragments of many genes, on a molecule of DNA, a fragment of DNA, a group of DNA molecules, or fragments of many DNA molecules. Could refer to anything from a small fragment of DNA to the entire genome of an organism. 3. DNA - substance carrying organism's genetic information. It is a nucleic acid molecule in the form of a twisted double strand double helix that is the major component of chromosomes and carries genetic information. DNA, which is found in all living organisms except some viruses, reproduces itself and is the means by which hereditary characteristics pass from one generation to the next. 4. Prokaryotes - Prokaryotes are organisms made up of cells that lack a cell nucleus or any membrane-encased organelles. They are small. 5. Eukaryotes - Eukaryotes are organisms made up of cells that possess a membrane- bound nucleus which contains DNA. Eukaryotic organisms may be multi-cellular or single-celled organisms. All animals are eukaryotes. Other eukaryotes include plants, fungi, and protists. They are also large. 6. Cytology -a branch of biology dealing with the study of cells, especially their structures and functions 7. Unicellular organism – One-celled organisms such as bacteria and protozoa. 8. Multi-cellular organism - an organism composed of many cells, which are to varying degrees integrated and independent. The development of multi-cellular organisms is accompanied by cellular specialization and division of labor; cells become efficient in one process and are dependent upon other cells for the necessities of life. 9. Plasma Membrane - thin molecular layer that surrounds all living cells. The plasma membrane separates the cell from its surroundings, protects it from changes in the chemical and physical environment, and regulates the traffic of molecules into and out of the cell.
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10. Nuclear Area – the chromosome being spread all over the cytoplasm. 11. Nucleiod - the DNA-containing area of a prokaryotic cell (as a bacterium). It is like a nucleus but not an actual one. 12. Ribosomes - any of the RNA- and protein-rich cytoplasmic granules that are sites of protein synthesis 13. Bacteria - one-celled organisms that have no true nucleus. 14. Cell Wall - Prokaryotic cells and plant cells both have a rigid cell wall made up of polysaccharides. The cell wall provides and maintains the shape of these cells and serves as a protective barrier. 15. Capsule - a membrane or saclike structure enclosing a part or organ 16. Flagella – They are in the cell body and propel objects by using a whip-like motion called beating.
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SCI 106 Biology Term Book - March 12th 2008 General Biology...

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