SCI 106 Syllabus for Exam 2

SCI 106 Syllabus for Exam 2 - Jonathan Castellanos Test:...

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Jonathan Castellanos Test: March 24 th , 2008 SCI 106 Syllabus EXAM # 2 Nucleus vs. nuclear area (Page 32) - Nucleus is membrane bound, where nuclear area is floating around. - DNA in chromosomes is held in a proper membrane-bound nucleus in Eukaryotes. - Circular DNA in 1 chromosome is located in the nuclear area in Prokaryotes. Lysosomes: function (Page 34) - Lysosomes are membrane bound sacs. - They have digestive enzymes, which are called Lysozomal enzymes. - They are for intracellular digestion. - They fuse with other vesicles that contain materials which cell wants to get rid of, for example: digested food remains, damaged cellular debris, and viruses. - After the lysosome is done, any of these things are broken down to their basic building blocks, which will be reused to make new things. Therefore lysosomes are recycling centers. Ribosomes: their significance (Page 33) - Ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis. - There are about 500,000 (very small) ribosomes per cell. - They can be attached to ER. - They can be attached to each other – this chain formation is called a polysome. - They can be free in the cytoplasm. ATP: processes that require it (Page 32) - Muscle contraction ( Movement ) - Active Transport - Growth - Reproduction - Excretion (exocytosis) - Molecular synthesis Mitochondria: function (Page 32) - Mitochondria are large organelles. - They are found in plants and animals. - They furnish energy into cell and make ATP, which is used to store energy, also known as adenosine triphosphate. - They have a double membrane (inner and outer) o Outer is smooth and only “x” amount of room. 50 Multiple Choice Questions One picture with structures to identify
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o Inner is highly folded for more surface area to carry out certain reactions into the mitochondria. - They have DNA, but it is not a cell, however it can reproduce by division. - Mitochondria are the powerhouse of the cell. Active transport (Page 29) - Moves things against the concentrated gradient (uphill) - Moves from Low to High concentration. - Moves towards the more concentrated side. - Requires energy (ATP). - Involves pumps. Golgi apparatus: function, appearance (Page 33) - Proteins from ER are modified here. - They are flat membranous sacs. - It looks like a pile of pita bread. - Vesicles from ER fuse to it, which gets proteins (Inside vesicle) to the inside of the Golgi. - Golgi then modifies, sorts and packages the proteins. - This process repeats as the proteins travels through all the sacs. - Eventually, a final vesicle emerges called the transport vesicle , or secretory vesicle, which can go off to: o bring its hydrolytic enzyme to be incorporated into a lysosome, or o the plasma membrane where by exocytosis gets its contents (proteins) discharged from the cell to other cells. Nuclear envelope (Page 33) - The nuclear envelope is a double-layered membrane, which surrounds the nucleus.
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SCI 106 Syllabus for Exam 2 - Jonathan Castellanos Test:...

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