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Lesson 4 Outline_Lipid1 - Lecture 1 Chemistry of Food...

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Lecture 1: Chemistry of Food Lipids Lesson 4 1. Lipids: Description and Biological Function Lipids- organic, fat-soluble, not soluble in water (fats, oils, cholesterol) Plant Lipds- soy, corn, peanut and canola oils Animal Lipids- butter, lard, tallow Biological Functions: -Energy storage- 9 cal/g -Structural components of cell membranes -Storage and transport of nutrients -Insulation and cussioning of vital organs 2. Triglyceride structure -Fats and Oils- common names -Humans store energy as triglycerides -Composed of: -1 Glycerol Molecule-3 carbon -3 fatty acids attached to glycerol backbone 3. Features of Fatty Acids -Fatty acids determine the characteristic of triglycerines eg solid or liquid at room -Basic structure: chain of carbon atoms with a COOH at the end -Length of CH 2 ranges from 4-28 usually in even numbers Saturated vs Unsaturated: Saturated- no double bonds between carbons Unsaturated- 1 or more double bond(s) between adjacent carbons Monounsaturated- 1 double bond Polyunsaturated- two or more double bonds 1
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Lecture 1: Chemistry of Food Lipids Lesson 4 How does saturation relate to melting point? -More double bonds (more unsaturated) lower melting point so more likely to be liquid at room temp. What does it have to do with geometry? -No double bonds means carbons are tightly packed together -Double bond will cause a bend or kink to they won’t pack closely together. Animals tend to provide saturated fats Plants tend to provide unsaturated fats Fish has lots of unsaturated fats and is an exception to the rule 4. Configuration of the Double Bond Cis-same side for hydrogen atoms, more kinks so don’t pack closely Trans- opposite sides- can pack together closer even though they are unsaturated 5. Highly saturated fats: coconut oil, butter, beef fat Highly monounsaturated fats: Olive oil, Canola Oil Highly polyunsaturated fats: safflower oil, corn oil, soybean oil, cottonseed oil 6.
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