Genetically Modified (GM) Foods and Ethical Eating.pdf -...

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R: Concise Reviews in Food Science Genetically Modified (GM) Foods and Ethical Eating Francis Dizon, Sarah Costa, Cheryl Rock, Amanda Harris, Cierra Husk, and Jenny Mei Abstract: The ability to manipulate and customize the genetic code of living organisms has brought forth the production of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and consumption of genetically modified (GM) foods. The potential for GM foods to improve the efficiency of food production, increase customer satisfaction, and provide potential health benefits has contributed to the rapid incorporation of GM foods into the American diet. However, GM foods and GMOs are also a topic of ethical debate. The use of GM foods and GM technology is surrounded by ethical concerns and situational judgment, and should ideally adhere to the ethical standards placed upon food and nutrition professionals, such as: beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice and autonomy. The future of GM foods involves many aspects and trends, including enhanced nutritional value in foods, strict labeling laws, and potential beneficial economic conditions in developing nations. This paper briefly reviews the origin and background of GM foods, while delving thoroughly into 3 areas: (1) GMO labeling, (2) ethical concerns, and (3) health and industry applications. This paper also examines the relationship between the various applications of GM foods and their corresponding ethical issues. Ethical concerns were evaluated in the context of the code of ethics developed by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND) that govern the work of food and nutrition professionals. Overall, there is a need to stay vigilant about the many ethical implications of producing and consuming GM foods and GMOs. Keywords: autonomy, beneficence, genetically modified food, justice, nonmaleficence Introduction Genetically modified (GM) foods are those whose genetic makeup has been altered “in a way that does not occur spon- taneously” (WHO 2015). Other names for GM-classified foods include the terms “genetically engineered (GE)” and “transgenic” (Bawa and Anilakumar 2013). In contrast, organisms (for exam- ple, bacteria ) that are GM are referred to as genetically modi- fied organisms (GMOs). The process of genome manipulation involves the translocation of genes from multiple genetic sources, in a process widely known as recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) technology (Bawa and Anilakumar 2013). Three basic rDNA techniques include transformation, phage introduction, and nonbacterial transformation (Kuure-Kinsey and McCooey 2000).According to Kuure-Kinsey and McCooey (2000), trans- formation involves enzymatically excising a desired fragment of DNA, inserting it into a vector vehicle, and implanting the vec- tor into a host cell (for example, Escherichia coli ) for DNA re- production. Moreover, Kuure-Kinsey and McCooey (2000) also explained nonbacterial transformation, where the DNA vector is inserted directly into the nucleus of a cell, instead of a bacterial host cell. A third technique also described by Kuure-Kinsey and

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