Chapter_25_Land_Empires_in_the_Age_of_Imperialism.ppt -...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 25 Land Empires in the Age of Imperialism, 18001870 The Ottoman Empire Egypt and the Napoleonic Example, 1798-1840 In 1798, Napoleon invaded Egypt and defeated the Mamluk. Returned to France. In 1801 French forces withdrew, leaving ________ in control of the new Egyptian state. French practices Ibrahim invaded Syria and started similar reforms there. Ali ruled until 1849 – Family 1952 Ottoman Reform and the European Model, 18071853 Sultan Selim III introduced European reform – Military, central government, taxation, and land tenure – These reforms led to opposition from the Janissaries – Serbian peasants helped defeat the Janissary uprising and went on to make Serbia independent of the Ottoman Empire Selim’s other opponents, ulama distrusted his reforms. Why? – Suspends reform but was executed Greek independence 1829 – Triumph for European civilization Allies: Sultan Mahmud II – Uses popular outrage to reform New army Elimination of Janissaries Reduction of religious elites Tanzimat reforms – Abdul Mejid 1839 Tanzimat – European Reform French and German training General education Foreign instructors Language Education stimulated urban wealth Clothing Equal taxation Equal access to courts for all males – Women Forced women to give up inheritance to husbands Competition The Crimean War and Its Aftermath 18531856 Russian’s southward expansion led to the Crimean War w/ the Ottoman Empire – Enemies: – Loss blocked expansion into the Middle East and Eastern Europe Significant changes – Russian government discredited – French and English propaganda Turk-French unity – Warfare Modernized Percussion caps and breech-loading rifles Machine guns Railways to transfer weapons Trench warfare Ottoman changes – Continuation of European model Urbanization Wage labor classes – Problems Fiscal problems Foreign loans Trade deficit inflation In the 1860s and 1870s discussion of a law that would have permitted all men to vote left Muslims worried that the Ottoman Empire was no longer a Muslim society. This worry may have contributed to Muslim hostilities against Christians in the Ottoman territories in Europe, Armenia, and the Middle East. Young Ottomans – – – – Constitutionalism Liberal reform Turkish national state In 1876 a ____ was granted but a coup placed a more ______ ruler on the throne; Result: The Russian Empire Russia and Europe In 1700, only __% lived in cities; very slow development of infrastructure and transportation. What prevented development of western modernization? Russia and Asia At end of 18th century, Russian Empire extended from ____ Ocean to _____. In the 19th century expansion brought conflict with: China, Japan, Iran, and Ottoman Empire. ______ took steps to prevent Russia from gaining control of all of Central Asia. Cultural Trends Contact with Russia since late 17th century. Opposition to reform came from wealthy families fearing imperial despotism. Penalties from Crimean War Developed cultural relations with Europe while the Ottoman would ultimately succumb to European imperialism. The Qing Empire Economic and Social Disorder, 1800-1839 When Qing conquered China in 1600s, they restored peace and promoted expansion of agricultural economy thus… Population strain – Itinerant farmhands, laborers, and merchants Discontent in Qing China – – – – Minorities Government Foreign merchants Manifested in a series of rebellions White Lotus rebellion (1794-1804) The Opium War and Its Aftermath, 1839-1850 Qin did not take British seriously or the growth of opium trade propagated in China. – Banned in 1839 – Lin Zenxu was sent to Canton to deal with matter. – Opium War (1939-44) ended with the Treaty of Nanking. The Taiping Rebellion, 1850-1864 Guangxi providence – – – Poor farmers Poverty Ethnic divisions Hakka “Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace” – – – Hong Xiuquan; Canton Recruits Captured Nanjing in 1853 – – Fell to Chinese/British/French Legacy: 20-30 million deaths Depopulation Massive destruction of Property and land Decentralization at the End of the Qing Empire, 1864-1875 ____ led to the Tongzhi Restoration. Reform modeled after _____. Aristocrats Unable to prevent the Qing Empire from disintegrating into a set of large power zones in which provincial governors exercised real authority. ...
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