MARK5811 Week 9 (S2-2017) – 3 slides per page .pdf

MARK5811 Week 9 (S2-2017) – 3 slides per page .pdf -...

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20/09/2017 1 MARK5811 AMR9 Survey (II) (S2-2017) Lecture structure for this week Course issues and questions Last topic: AMR8: Survey (I) Advantages and disadvantage of using questionnaires What to avoid when constructing individual questions Types of questions Next topic: AMR10: Survey (III) Lecture summary Last Topic: AMR8 Survey (I) Survey process Types of questionnaire Conducting a staff opinion survey
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20/09/2017 2 Reducing item non-response At the item (question) level, missing data may be far from random and pose a threat of bias to the study. In interviews, it is essential that interviewers are skilled in handling non-response to individual questions. This is helped by interviewers being able to remind respondents about the confidentiality of their answers. For postal surveys, any problem of non-response should have been picked up at the piloting stage. It should have been clear which questions were giving respondents a problem, e.g. with attitude surveys if the respondents do not feel that their views have been represented in the questions or they dislike the way in which potential responses are phrased. Reducing interviewer error Unskilled, untrained or inexperienced interviewers can be a source of error due to the way in which they handle the interview. The respondent should answer against the categories that are presented, and no other. So if these categories are ‘Strongly agree’, ‘Agree’, ‘Disagree’ and ‘Strongly disagree’, or ‘No response’, these are what are marked down and coded on the interview schedule. If such responses are not forthcoming, the interviewer responds with a probe, a question designed to elicit an acceptable response. So, say a respondent answered: ‘ Yeh, you’re absolutely right!’ the correct probe is: ‘Would that be … [read the categories again]?’ The incorrect probe would be: ‘So, would that be “Strongly agree”, then?’, as this, obviously, would be biasing the response. Improving validity If you are designing your own survey instrument such as a questionnaire, it is easy to construct questions that do not match what you are trying to discover. There may be validated scales already available, so it is sensible to make use of them.
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20/09/2017 3 Ethics and good practice in survey design Respondents must be told about the nature and purposes of the survey, who is sponsoring it and how much of their time will be required in answering it. Respondents should also know about the purposes to which the survey data will be put. Respondents should take part purely voluntarily and not as a result of pressure being imposed on them. In protecting confidentiality, care must be taken to ensure that data sets or the results of the study do not allow individuals to be identified.
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