Neurologic System 9:25.pptx - 1 Neurologic System NR 405A Loretto Heights School of Nursing Regis University Overview of the Nervous System \u2022 Central

Neurologic System 9:25.pptx - 1 Neurologic System NR 405A...

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NR 405A Loretto Heights School of Nursing Regis University Neurologic System 1
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Overview of the Nervous System Central nervous system (CNS) Brain and spinal cord Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Cranial nerves Spinal nerves Pathways Afferent (ascending) Efferent (descending)
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Divisions of the Brain
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Central Nervous System : Lobes of the Brain
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Central Nervous System Corpus callosum Connects the two cerebral hemispheres. Limbic system Primitive behavioral responses, visceral reaction to emotion, feeding behaviors, biologic rhythms, and sense of smell Expression of affect (emotional and behavioral states), mediated by the limbic system and prefrontal cortex Consolidation of memory
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Spinal Cord Lies within the vertebral canal and is protected by the vertebral column Connects the brain and the body Conducts somatic and autonomic reflexes Provides motor pattern control centers Modulates sensory and motor function
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Cerebrospinal Fluid Passes out an opening below the cerebellum Circulates around the brain and spinal cord in the subarachnoid space
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Overview of the Nervous System Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Somatic nervous system Motor and sensory pathways regulating voluntary motor control of skeletal muscle Autonomic nervous system Motor and sensory pathways regulating the body’s internal environment through involuntary control of organ systems Sympathetic Parasympathetic
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Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic—fight or flight Increase heart rate, blood pressure Dilate pupils, bronchioles Blood from the GI, skin to skeletal muscles, brain Parasympathetic—rest or digest Decrease heart rate, blood pressure Constrict pupils Blood to the GI tract, increased secretions
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Cells of the Nervous System Neuron Primary information and communication cell Variable size and structure throughout the nervous system Cellular constituents Some neurons, such as olfactory neurons, continue to divide; others die, if not needed
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Neurons have three components. Cell body (soma) Located mainly in the CNS Dendrites Receive Stimuli Axons Pass stimuli to next cell Myelin Layer of lipid material Insulating substance Formed and maintained by the Schwann Cell
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Geriatric Considerations The aging brain is accompanied by a change in structure, function, and metabolism. The volume and weight of the brain declines at a rate of approximately 5% per decade after age 40. Cognitive changes occur such as a decline in episodic memory. Increasing blood-brain barrier permeability. Results in an increased inflammatory response and structural damage The prevalence of pain increases with age.
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Sensory & Somatosensory Sensory Vision Hearing Somatosensory Provides awareness of pain, touch, temperature and position 4 major modalities of sensation Touch Temperature Proprioception Nociception/Pain
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  • Spring '19
  • Neurology, Traumatic brain injury, Cerebrospinal fluid

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