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Chapter 1 (notes): 1 st question on the exam: who are the authors of your textbook? o Robert Biles o Lyle Brown o Juan Huerta o Joyce Langenegger o Sonia Garcia o Ryan Rynbrandt o Veronica Vega Reyna Society needs rules, or public policies, by which to live. Making, implementing, and enforcing these policies is the job of government. The government of the State of Texas is modeled on that of the United States, with the power to make policy divided among legislative, executive, and judicial branches. Each branch has its own powers, and each has some ability to limit or check the power of the others. The state government also delegates some policymaking power to local governments, including counties, cities, and special districts. As a result, public policies take different forms. Many policies are laws passed by the legislature, approved by the governor, implemented by an executive department, and interpreted by the courts. Others are constitutional amendments proposed by the legislature and ratified by the voters of Texas. Some policies derive from rules promulgated ( promote or make widely known) by state agencies and ordinances passed by local governments. What all of these efforts share in common is that they are attempts to meet a public need or reach a public goal. Government tries to meet public needs by allocating resources. For example, state or local government may formulate, adopt, and implement a public policy, such as raising taxes to pay for more police protection or better streets and highways. Government tries to meet public goals by using policy to encourage or discourage specific behaviors. The state can encourage some behaviors using incentives—for example, establishing scholarships or student loan programs to encourage getting an education. It can discourage other con- duct with punishments, such as imposing penitentiary time for selling drugs. In addition, the government can encourage or discourage behaviors through public relations and information campaigns, such as the famous ‘‘Don’t Mess with Texas’’ campaign against littering. In the political realm, you may think of public policy as the product and government as the factory in which policy is made. If that’s the case, then politics is the process that produces public policy. In fact, the government has at times been compared to a sausage factory—even if you like the product it produces, the process isn’t always very pleasant to watch. The politics of policymaking often involves conflict among government officials, political parties, interest groups, media figures, citizens, noncitizen residents, and other groups that seek to influence how policies in Texas are enacted and implemented. Conflict over power and resources can encourage the worst behavior in people, and opportunities for corruption and greed abound. Yet politics also requires cooperation and can inspire noble and courageous action. In sum, politics is the moving force by which government produces public policy,

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