Civilization&Discontents(1:2).pdf - Shalisa Gilliard...

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Shalisa Gilliard Professor Shapiro IH 0852: Common Good 27 March 2019 Civilization & It’s Discontents Chapter 1 Vocabulary: Variegated, delimitation, demarcation, excitations Summary: Topic- Religion Freud begins his book by describing a conversation, through letters, that he had with a friend regarding a book he sent him on religion. He states that the book “treats religion as an illusion” (page 24). As a counter argument , his friend explains that many people aren’t inclined to identify with a specific religion but may still embrace an oceanic ” feeling that they never go without. It is within them. Freud believes that he does not have this feeling in himself. He blames this on his belief in science but still acknowledges the feeling that others may feel for religion. Next, Freud seeks to understand how others acquire this feeling. He introduces his theory of the ego, id and superego. Notes: - Freud treats religion as an illusion - The true source of religious sentiments - Oceanic feeling= purely subjective - Ego: active, conscious, decision-making self. o “the feeling of our own ego is subject to disturbances and the boundaries of the ego are not constant.” o Internal- belongs to ego; external- emanates from the outer world o Child-adult the ego has to differentiate inside (internal world) from the outside (external world). Which Freud calls the self and object. Object- person/group/thing that is the receiver of aggression and/or love. - Freud associates the “oceanic” feeling of othernes s (religious beliefs) with the ego. o Roman Architectural history for example but eventually denies this analogy because the mind cannot be presented in visual terms. o anything “arising” in the mind “cannot perish.” - Id: set of unconscious desires “deep” within the mind. o drives toward love and death - Superego: controls the ego and id. - Freud dismisses his friend’s theory of an oceanic feeling as an explanation for the source of religious sentiments. o Instead, Freud introduces the idea of paternal dependency. He suggests that there is a longing for paternal protection in one’s childhood and this longing continues into adulthood. Thus, the new paternal figure translates to “God (the father, son, holy spirit).” o Freud believe that this also lacks a psychological basis. Quotes: “it is impossible to escape the impression that people commonly used false standards of measurement that they seek power, success and wealth for themselves and admire them in others, and that they underestimate what is of true value in life.” Page 23