HRM 360 midterm review.docx - Appendix Induction is the...

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Appendix . Induction is the process that researchers use to come up with general ways to account for or explain specific observations or instances of organizational behavior Deduction is the process of making specific predictions (point C in Exhibit A.1) from general explanations. A general explanation for absenteeism (arrived at through induction), for example, might be that employees are most likely to be absent from their jobs when they are dissatisfied and have a lot of personal responsibilities in addition to their work responsibilities. Verification is the process by which researchers determine whether their predictions are accurate by making specific observations about organizational behavior Researchers can use four basic criteria to determine a theory’s usefulness: correspondence, coherence, parsimony, and pragmatism.3 Correspondence is the extent to which a theory is congruent with what is actually observed in organizations. One way to determine correspondence is to see whether predictions derived from the theory are verified or found to be accurate. Coherence is the extent to which the logic in the theory is straightforward and the theory is free of any logical contradictions. Parsimony is the extent to which a theory is free of concepts or relationships that are not necessary to provide a good explanation. Suppose there are two theories of absenteeism— one includes five concepts and the other ten—and each does an equally good job of explaining absenteeism. The simpler theory is preferred because of its greater parsimony. Pragmatism is the extent to which a theory stimulates further research. A minimal condition for pragmatism is that the theory is able to be tested. No matter how eloquent a theory, if no one is able to test it, the theory is not very useful at all.
A specific measure of a variable is sometimes called an operational definition of the variable Reliability is the extent to which a measure of a variable is free of error. Suppose you are weighing people, but the scale you are using is not reliable. Each time you weigh them, their weight varies by three or four pounds even though their actual weight has not changed. Your measure of weight lacks reliability because it contains a significant amount of error. Validity is the extent to which an operational definition of a variable is actually measuring the variable in question. Given that many of the variables in organizational behavior research are abstract, it is essential that measures of variables are valid or that the measures are actually measuring what the researcher wants to measure Intro In planning, managers establish their organization’s strategy—that is, they decide how best to allocate and use resources to achieve organizational goals.

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