2188 Midterm 2.docx - History of Pirates Midterm#2(Lectures...

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History of PiratesMidterm #2 (Lectures 4-6)Lecture 4 – Elizabethan Sea DogsChristopher Columbus sought out information in his Atlantic voyagesoThey did not necessarily sail as representatives of a country/nation, but rather soldtheir services throughout EuropeoHe is Italian but he sailed on behalf of the SpanishElizabethan Sea Dogso14th-17thCenturies oEmerged during the renaissance – renaissance = “rebirth”During the rebirth we begin to see what was once lost – beliefs and knowledge of the Greeks/Romans/other ancientsEverything is rediscovered and it informs new European culture of art, music, etc.Trade commerce and wanting to know more of the world around us – thus exploration and discovery is growingEnormous advances in geometry and astronomyColumbus believes that the world is not flat – he is the first to say thisAncient maps are also rediscovered during this timeo“Age of Discovery”/ “Age of Exploration”oUnstable Environment in the MediterraneanMuch more expensive as Christian shipping and states had to pay taxes and fees throughout these waters due to Muslim expansion and the fall of the Byzantine EmpireProtection money from Christians needed to be paidThis oppressive economic environment gives rise to the desire to explore the worldoDa Vinci and other famous artists emerge during this timeframeoFall of Constantinople causes people to migrate to Italy, Portugal, and SpainGenoa and Venice now become major trading centresUnfortunately for Western Europe, many city states within Italy compete with one another – they subsequently become the middle me in trade in desire to trade with the EastIberiaoSpain and PortugaloMoreish occupied part of Spain until the late 15thCenturyoPlanning to venture out across the ocean – need larger vessels with large cargo holds able to carry supplies and water, food, provisions, wood and other necessitiesoNeeded reasonable sized crew to pilot the ship and tools and weaponsCarrack/Nao
oHybrid of Mediterranean and Northern European designsoTwo to four masts with main AND lateen sails usedEaser to catch more wind, and beat the sails with main square sheetsWorks best in strong windsAlso easier to manoeuver with lateen sails addedTaking full advantage of the wind and becoming a much more complex machine3 mast sailing ships the most complex to dateoDeep hold – can carry enough fresh water and provisions to stay at sea for long periods of timeoCalled “Castles at Sea”Has a forcastleAssures safety and security from wind as well as available for troops to station thereSails well in rough watersGrowing size and stability of this vessel allows for cannons to be mountedoMajor developments in navigationAllows ship to follow a pre-set courseUtilizes latitude and the starsCan easily make their way from east to westCaraveloPortuguese designo

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