APUSH Unit #29 Notes .pdf - APUSH Unit #29: Limits of a...

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APUSH Unit #29: Limits of a Superpower (1969-1980)I.Richard Nixon's Foreign Policy:A.In his January 1969 inaugural address, President Nixon promised to bring Americanstogether after the turmoil of the 1960s.B.Together with his national security adviser,Henry Kissinger(who became secretary ofstate during Nixon's second term), Nixon fashioned a pragmatic foreign policy thatreduced the tensions of the Cold War.C.Vietnam:1.When Nixon took office, more than half a million U.S. troops were in Vietnam.2.His principal objective was to find a way to reduce U.S. involvement in the warwhile at the same time avoiding the appearance of conceding defeat.3.In a word, Nixon said the United States was seeking nothing less than "peacewith honor."4."Vietnamization." (1969-1972)a)He announced that he would gradually withdraw U.S. troops fromVietnam and give the South Vietnamese the money, the weapons, and thetraining that they needed to take over the full conduct of the war.b)Under this policy, U.S. troops in South Vietnam went from over 540,000in 1969 to under 30,000 in 1972c)Extending the idea of disengagement to other parts of Asia, the presidentproclaimed the Nixon Doctrine, declaring that in the future Asian allieswould receive U.S. support but without the extensive use of U.S. groundforces.5.Opposition to Nixon's War Policiesa)Nixon's gradual withdrawal of forces from Vietnam reduced the numberof antiwar protests. However, in April 1970, the president expanded thewar by using U.S. forces to invade Cambodia in an effort to destroyVietnamese Communist bases in that country.b)Protests on college campuses against this action resulted in the killing offour youths by National Guard troops at Kent State (1970) in Ohio andtwo students at Jackson State in Mississippi.
c)Also in 1970, the American public was shocked to learn about a 1968massacre of women and children by U.S. troops in the Vietnamesevillage of My Lai6.Opposition to Nixon's War Policies:a)Pentagon Papers: Further fueling the antiwar sentiment was:(1)the publication by the New York Times of the Pentagon Papers(1969), a secret government history documenting the mistakesand deceptions of government policy-makers in dealing withVietnam.(2)The papers had been turned over, or "leaked," to the press byDaniel Ellsberg, a former Defense Department analyst.7.Peace Talks, Bombing Attacks, and Armistice: The Paris Peace Accords (1973)a)On the diplomatic front, Nixon had Kissinger conduct secret peacemeetings with North Vietnam's foreign ministerb)When the two sides could not reach a deal, Nixon ordered a massivebombing of North Vietnam (the heaviest air attacks of the long war) toforce him back to the tablec)The North Vietnamese agreed to an armistice, in which the United Stateswould withdraw the last of its troops and get back over 500 prisoners ofwar (POWs), and N.V. would agree to free and ceasefire electionsd)The United States to extricate itself from a war that had claimed over58,000 American lives.

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