Psych Chapter 10 Notes.docx - Psych Chapter 10 Notes 10.1 How Does Biology Make Us Male or Female Biological sex refers to the physical factors that

Psych Chapter 10 Notes.docx - Psych Chapter 10 Notes 10.1...

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Psych Chapter 10 Notes 10.1 How Does Biology Make Us Male or Female? Biological sex refers to the physical factors that determine the sex of a person. There are five aspects of each person’s biological sex. When all these aspects of a person are consistent with each other, we usually say the person is either male or female. Five Aspects of Biological Sex : 1. SEX CHROMOSOMES Genetic material determined at conception by the 23 rd pair of chromosomes in the new zygote 2. SEX GLANDS Organs that release sex hormones and contain the cells used for sexual reproduction 3. SECONDARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS Changes during puberty that are indirectly related to sexual reproduction 4. PRIMARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS Changes during puberty that are directly related to sexual reproduction 5. BRAINS Differences in brain structure and in mental processes
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Five Aspects in Males & Females: SEX CHROMOSOMES: FEMALES Sex chromosomes: XX sex chromosomes Sex glands : Ovaries release more estrogens and develop mature egg cells Secondary sex characteristics : Increased release of estradiol Defining of waist Increase in fat Breast development Body hair (armpits) Pubic hair Primary sex characteristics : Mature internal organs (uterus and ovaries with egg cells) Mature genitals (vagina) Menarche Brains : Less reactive amygdala and larger and more reactive orbitofrontal cortex create a tendency toward less physical aggression MALES Sex chromosomes : XY sex chromosomes Sex glands : Testes release more androgens and develop mature sperm cells Secondary sex characteristics : Increased release of testosterone Greater muscle mass Facial hair Deepening voice Angular jaw Body hair (armpits and chest) Pubic hair Primary sex characteristics : Mature internal organs (testes w/ sperm cells) Mature genitals (penis) Spermarche Brains : More reactive amygdala, smaller orbitofrontal cortex, and reduced coupling of amygdala and prefrontal cortex create a tendency toward greater physical aggression
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When developing normally, the zygote contains all the genetic information from both parents in 46 chromosomes: 23 from the mother and 23 from the father. The 23 rd chromosome from each parent determines the zygote’s biological sex. The mother’s egg cell always contributes an X chromosome as the 23 rd chromosome. In about half of conceptions, the father’s sperm cell also contributes an X chromosome so that the zygote has XX sex chromosomes . This makes the zygote a female. In about the other half of conceptions, the father’s sperm cell contributes a Y chromosome instead so the zygote has XY sex chromosomes . This makes the zygote a male. Thus, about half of babies are born with female sex chromosomes and half are born with male sex chromosomes. SEX GLANDS: Once the sex chromosomes of a zygote are determined, they also affect what sex glands, or gonads , the zygote will eventually develop.
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