Bio Bases 2 Exam 2 Review GuideChapter 10 Reproductive BehaviorsBoth males and females start with the same anatomy during the early stage of prenatal development.oMüllerian ducts: Precursors to female internal structuresoWolffian ducts: precursors to male internal structures ovas deferens: a duct from the testes into the penisoSRY (sex-determining region on the Y chromosome) gene: a gene on the male’s y chromosome, causes the gonads to develop into testes, the sperm-producing organsoAndrogens: hormones that are more abundant in males oEstrogens:hormones that are more abundant in females oMüllerian-inhibiting hormone (MIH): causes the Mullerian ducts to degenerate oOvariesoTestesoSteroid hormones: Contain four carbon rings, and exert their effects in three waysoAndrogens and estrogens are categories of chemicals; neither androgen nor estrogenis a specific chemical itself. TestosteroneEstradiol: prominent type of estrogenProgesterone: predominantly female hormone, prepares the uterus for the implantation of a fertilized oven and promotes the maintenance of pregnancyOrganizing effects: long-lasting effects of a hormone that are present during a sensitive period early in developmentActivating effects: temp. effect of a hormone, which occurs at any time in life while the hormone is presentsensitive period: period where during the first trimester of pregnancy, se hormones determine whether the body develops female or male genitaliaIn mammals, differentiation of the external genitals and several aspects of brain development depend mainly on the level of testosterone, not estradiol. A high level of testosterone, converted in cells to dihydrotestosterone, causes the external genitals to develop the male pattern, and a low level leads to the female pattern. Estradiol produces important effects on the internal organs, but it has little effect on the external genitals.