Bio Bases 2 Exam 2 Review Guide.docx - Bio Bases 2 Exam 2 Review Guide Chapter 10 Reproductive Behaviors Both males and females start with the same

Bio Bases 2 Exam 2 Review Guide.docx - Bio Bases 2 Exam 2...

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Bio Bases 2 Exam 2 Review Guide Chapter 10 Reproductive Behaviors Both males and females start with the same anatomy during the early stage of prenatal development. o Müllerian ducts : Precursors to female internal structures o Wolffian ducts : precursors to male internal structures o vas deferens : a duct from the testes into the penis o SRY (sex-determining region on the Y chromosome) gene : a gene on the male’s y chromosome, causes the gonads to develop into testes, the sperm-producing organs o Androgens : hormones that are more abundant in males o Estrogens :hormones that are more abundant in females o Müllerian-inhibiting hormone (MIH) : causes the Mullerian ducts to degenerate o Ovaries o Testes o Steroid hormones: Contain four carbon rings, and exert their effects in three ways o Androgens and estrogens are categories of chemicals; neither androgen nor estrogen is a specific chemical itself. Testosterone Estradiol: prominent type of estrogen Progesterone: predominantly female hormone, prepares the uterus for the implantation of a fertilized oven and promotes the maintenance of pregnancy Organizing effects: long-lasting effects of a hormone that are present during a sensitive period early in development Activating effects: temp. effect of a hormone, which occurs at any time in life while the hormone is present sensitive period: period where during the first trimester of pregnancy, se hormones determine whether the body develops female or male genitalia In mammals, differentiation of the external genitals and several aspects of brain development depend mainly on the level of testosterone, not estradiol. A high level of testosterone, converted in cells to dihydrotestosterone, causes the external genitals to develop the male pattern, and a low level leads to the female pattern. Estradiol produces important effects on the internal organs, but it has little effect on the external genitals.
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