Food Security and Information.pdf - 2016 Africa REGIONAL OVERVIEW OF FOOD SECURITY AND NUTRITION THE CHALLENGES OF BUILDING RESILIENCE TO SHOCKS AND

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Unformatted text preview: 2016 Africa REGIONAL OVERVIEW OF FOOD SECURITY AND NUTRITION THE CHALLENGES OF BUILDING RESILIENCE TO SHOCKS AND STRESSES Photo Credit: ©FAO/Oliver Asselin Cover Photo: ©FAO/Olivier Asselin FAO Information products are available on the FAO website ( ) and can be purchased through [email protected] 2016 Africa REGIONAL OVERVIEW OF FOOD SECURITY AND NUTRITION THE CHALLENGES OF BUILDING RESILIENCE TO SHOCKS AND STRESSES FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS Accra, 2017 Required citation: FAO. 2017. Regional Overview of Food Security and Nutrition in Africa 2016. The challenges of building resilience to shocks and stresses. Accra. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The mention of specific companies or products of manufacturers, whether or not these have been patented, does not imply that these have been endorsed or recommended by FAO in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Throughout this publication, the regrouping of countries into subregions follows the new M49 country classification adopted by the United Nations in October 2013, which is accessible at unsd/methods/m49/m49regin.htm ISBN 978-92-5-109629-1 © FAO, 2017 FAO encourages the use, reproduction and dissemination of material in this information product. Except where otherwise indicated, material may be copied, downloaded and printed for private study, research and teaching purposes, or for use in non-commercial products or services, provided that appropriate acknowledgement of FAO as the source and copyright holder is given and that FAO’s endorsement of users’ views, products or services is not implied in any way. All requests for translation and adaptation rights, and for resale and other commercial use rights should be made via or addressed to [email protected] FAO information products are available on the FAO website ( ) and can be purchased through [email protected] REGIONAL OVERVIEW REGIONAL OFOVERVIEW FOOD SECURITY OF FOOD SECURITY AND NUTRITION AND NUTRITION 2016 2016 5 CONTENTS v Foreword vi Acknowledgements vii Acronyms viii List of figures and appendix Part One Food insecurity and the triple burden of malnutrition: prevalence and trends in sub-Saharan Africa 1 1.1 Prevalence of severe food insecurity based on FIES 2 1.2 Food availability 5 1.3 Food accessibility 6 1.4 Food utilization: the triple burden of malnutrition Part Two Policies and programmes to support food security and nutrition 11 2.1 Regional and subregional food security and nutrition policies and programmes 14 2.2 Overview of selected national food security and nutrition policies and programmes Part Three Building resilience for food security and nutrition in the context of climate change and conflicts 24 3.1 The threats of climate change and conflicts on livelihoods in sub-Saharan Africa 26 3.2 Policies and programmes for climate change adaptation and mitigation 30 3.3 Regional and national responses to El Niño and La Niña 33 3.4 Investing in resilience to support peace-building efforts Key messages FOREW0RD S ince 2015, sub-Saharan Africa has again experienced severe climate-induced disruptions because of the El Niño and La Niña weather phenomena. In terms of severity and extent, the ongoing El Niño and La Niña, with their related droughts and floods, are considered the worst since the turn of the century, and have affected the livelihoods of tens of millions of poor households. This is compounded by the increasing frequency of other shocks — civil strife and conflicts, increasing incidence of transboundary plant and animal pests and diseases as well as socio-economic shocks — that are likely to reverse years of progress, undermining efforts by African governments to attain food security and nutrition. Owing to the importance the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) attach to resilience-building, the theme of the 2016 edition of the Regional Overview of Food Security and Nutrition in Africa is: “The challenge of building resilience to shocks and stresses”. Thus, an entire section of this report (Part Three) focuses on issues and response mechanisms for building resilience of the most vulnerable populations to shocks related to food security and nutrition in the context of climate change and conflicts. The report presents respectively in Parts One and Two, the prevalence and trends in malnutrition, and policies and programmes in support of their improvement. This 2016 edition of the report introduces a new tool to help enhance our understanding of food security and nutritional status, with the view to inform policy-planning and effective implementation. This tool, referred to as the Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES), is an experience-based metric of food insecurity severity that relies on people’s direct responses to questions regarding their access to adequate food. Inspired by evidence from two decades of application of similar measurement tools in many countries, the FIES provides more reliable population estimates of food insecurity that are comparable across different countries and cultures. As no single tool can account for the multiple dimensions of food and nutrition security, the FIES complements existing sets of food and nutrition security indicators including the Prevalence of Undernourishment (PoU) indicator. It is a new metric for individuals or households’ ability to access food, developed by the FAO with the Voices of the Hungry project to estimate the proportion of individuals or households experiencing difficulties to obtain enough food, at different levels of severity. Used in combination with other measures, the FIES has the potential to contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the causes and consequences of food insecurity and to inform more effective policies and interventions. As the FIES is easy for professionals and institutions from any sector to use, its inclusion in diverse types of surveys can help strengthen links between different sectoral perspectives, for example, between agriculture, social protection, health and nutrition. In this regard, I am delighted to inform you, dear readers, that in March 2016, the UN Statistical Commission endorsed the proposal made by the Inter Agency and Expert Group on the Sustainable Development Goals (IAEG-SDG) to use the prevalence of moderate or severe food insecurity in the population, based on the FIES, as an indicator for Target 2.1 of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development as well as the traditional PoU. When designed properly, the FIES-based indicators will serve to track global, regional, national and subnational changes in food insecurity, providing information for policy-making at several levels. For over 70 years, FAO has been supporting Member Nations in their efforts to improve food security and nutrition. FAO’s assistance is tailored to country needs, focused on building capacities, sharing knowledge, facilitating policy dialogue and innovative partnerships, and developing and implementing agreements, codes of conduct and technical standards. It is my hope that the information provided in the Regional Overview of Food Security and Nutrition in Africa, 2016 will be of use to policy-makers, researchers and others concerned with the eradication of hunger and poverty through improving agriculture, food security and nutrition in sub-Saharan Africa. Bukar Tijani Assistant Director-General and Regional Representative for Africa v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS T his second edition of the Regional Overview of Food Security and Nutrition in Africa has been jointly prepared by the FAO Regional Office for Africa (RAF) and the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA), in close collaboration with FAO Statistics Division (ESS), FAO Agricultural Development Economics Division (ESA), the Food Security, Agriculture and Land Section (FSALS), the Investment Section (IS), and the African Trade Policy Center (ATPC) of UNECA. Many thanks to Koffi Amegbeto who coordinated the preparation of the document and led the production of Part One and Part Two under close supervision and guidance of Bukar Tijani, Assistant Director-General and Regional Representative for Africa, assisted by Abebe Haile-Gabriel, Deputy Regional Representative for Africa and FAO Representative to Ghana, and by Beth Crawford, Regional Strategic Programme Coordinator, in RAF. Mohamed Ag Bendech, Farayi Zimudzi supported by Nourou Maki Tall and Eloi Ouedraogo led, respectively, the production of the sections on nutrition and the triple burden of malnutrition, Part Three on resilience building in the context of climate change and conflicts, and the section on FIES. Valuable contributions were received from several officers of the Regional Office, the Subregional Offices, Country Offices, and FAO headquarters. Suffyan Koroma, Martinus van der Knaap and Liliane Kambirigi from the Regional Office, Adama Ekberg Coulibaly, Medhat El-Helepi, Laura Paez and Guillaume Gerout from UNECA, as well as Coumba Dieng Sow from the Office of the FAO Director-General, worked diligently and provided technical contributions, reviewed drafts and made suggestions for improvement. Technical contributions and some specific data on FIES, and information on food security and nutrition policies and programmes in sub-Saharan Africa were provided by Rob Vos (Director ESA), Mulat Demeke, Stefania Croce, Areej Jafari, Eugenia Stefanelli and Luca Renzi from the Food and Agriculture Policy Decision Analysis (FAPDA) team in ESA; and Pietro Gennari, Carlo Cafiero and the Voices of the Hungry project team in ESS, under the overall supervision of Kostas Stamoulis, Assistant Director-General ad interim for FAO Economic and Social Development Department. Contributions on specific country cases and Regional Economic Communities (RECs) were received from Abebe Haile-Gabriel, David Phiri, Dan Rugabira, Patrick Kormawa, Berhanu Bedane, Attaher Maiga, Martin Ager, Patrice Talla, Yves Klompenhouwer, Aubrey Harris, George Okech, Florence Rolle, Amadou Allahoury, Aristide Ongone, Ana Menezes and Odile Angoran. Kofi Agyeman-Duah and Reggie Annan provided technical support as consultants, statistician and nutritionist respectively. The Office for Corporate Communication (OCC) assisted with publishing standards, layout and formatting. Joan Nimarkoh and Joas Fiodehoume edited the document, while Samuel Creppy from RAF Communication group worked on photo selection and final layout. vi Acronyms AfDB AGIR CAADP COMESA DES EAC ECCAS ECOWAP ECOWAS EU FAO FAPDA FIES GDP GHA ICN2 IDDRSI IDP IFPRI IGAD IOC LEAP MDG NEPAD REC SADC SDG SSA UNECA UNHCR UNICEF USAID WASH WB WFP WHA African Development Bank Global Alliance for Resilience Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa Dietary Energy Supply Eastern Africa Community Economic Community of Central African States Agricultural Policy of ECOWAS Economic Community of West African States European Union Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Policy Decision Analysis Food Insecurity Experience Scale Gross Domestic Product Greater Horn of Africa Second International Conference on Nutrition IGAD Drought Disaster Resilience and Sustainability Initiative Internally Displaced People International Food Policy Research Institute Intergovernmental Authority on Development Indian Ocean Commission Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty Millennium Development Goal New Partnership for Africa’s Development Regional Economic Community Southern Africa Development Community Sustainable Development Goal Sub-Saharan Africa United Nations Economic Commission for Africa Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees United Nations Children’s Emergency Fund United States Agency for International Development Water, Sanitation and Hygiene World Bank World Food Programme World Health Assembly vii List of figures and appendix List of figures Figure 1: Figure 2: Figure 3: Figure 4: Figure 5: Figure 6: Figure 7: Figure 8: Figure 9: Figure 10: Figure 11: Figure 12 Figure 13: Figure 14: Figure 15: Figure 16: Prevalence of severe food insecurity across subregions in SSA Average dietary energy supply adequacy Food trade in SSA Average protein supply Average supply of protein of animal origin GDP per capita Poverty rates in SSA Domestic food price index Depth of food deficit Share of stunted children by subregion Share of wasted children by subregion Prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents and adults by subregion Prevalence of anaemia in WRA in the world Prevalence of anaemia across subregions in SSA Prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in preschool age children Comparing baseline, current status and targeted prevalence of WHA nutrition indicators Appendix Table 1: Average prevalence of severe food insecurity based on the FIES in 2014/15 viii Photo Credit: ©FAO/Simon Maina The prevalence of stunting in sub-Saharan Africa has reduced by only 7.2 percent from 1985 to 2016, and one in three children under the age of five is stunted. Eastern and western Africa host the highest proportions, 44 percent and 36 percent respectively, while the lowest prevalence (3 percent) is observed in southern Africa. Part One – Food insecurity and the triple burden of malnutrition: prevalence and trends in sub-Saharan Africa Food security and nutrition is at the heart of Africa’s development agenda with greater commitment to ending hunger, achieving food security and advancing optimal nutrition for all Africans. The Malabo Commitment to ending hunger, reducing stunting to below 10 percent and underweight to below 5 percent by 2025 is driving African countries to do business differently by engaging in multisectoral processes and evidence-based decision making. This chapter highlights the prevalence of severe food insecurity in the region, and examines three dimensions of food security, namely, availability, access and utilization. 1.1 Prevalence of severe food insecurity based on FIES On 25 September 2015, countries adopted a set of goals to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure prosperity for all as part of a new sustainable development agenda dubbed “the Sustainable Development Goals” (SDGs) replacing the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which were adopted in 2000 and ended in 2015. The SDGs consist of 17 goals and 169 targets. The SDG1 and SDG2 address the interrelated issues of “ending poverty in all its forms everywhere” and “ending hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture” respectively by 2030. Target 2.1 of SDG2 focuses specifically on access to food: “By 2030, end hunger and ensure access by all people, in particular the poor and people in vulnerable situations, including infants, to safe, nutritious and sufficient food all year round.” and the prevalence of moderate or severe food insecurity in the population. At the same time, countries are encouraged to identify additional indicators when necessary to adequately account for all aspects of the 2025 target. The prevalence of moderate or severe food insecurity is measured based on the Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES) . It provides estimates of the proportion of individuals or households experiencing difficulties in obtaining enough food, at different levels of severity, based on data collected through direct interviews. Prevalence rates can be computed for food insecurity at moderate or severe levels, and at severe levels only, implying distinctively different consequences in terms of welfare for the affected population. The FIES generates estimates of food insecurity at the individual level, based on analysis of self-reported occurrence of experiences during a period of 12 months. The most severe levels are typically associated with the possibility of being hungry but unable to eat, or going for an entire day without eating for lack of money or other resources, and therefore can be expected to be associated with undernourishment. The main advantage of FIES is that it can be implemented easily and at low cost, and when applied in large-scale surveys designed to be representative of subnational levels, it can provide actionable information that policy-makers can use to identify vulnerable population groups and guide policy interventions at these levels. The next section examines the dimensions of food security: availability, access and utilization. Specifically in sub-Saharan Africa, the African Union (AU)’s Agenda 2063 sets both the vision and the action plan for the development of the continent over the next 50 years. Adopted in June 2014, the first ten-year implementation plan (2015–2025) covers seven priority areas aligned with the SDGs. These priorities are defined in the 2014 Malabo Declaration on “Accelerated Agricultural Growth and Transformation for Shared Prosperity and Improved Livelihoods”. Accordingly, African Heads of State and Government pledged, among other goals, to end hunger by 2025, focusing on the triple targets of increased production, reduced losses and waste and improved nutrition. The FIES Survey Module was applied in representative samples of the national populations in over 145 countries in 2014 and 2015 to produce national and regional estimates of the prevalence of food insecurity that are calibrated to a global reference standard and therefore, comparable across countries. Table 1 in the Appendix presents estimates of severe food insecurity rates prevailing globally and in each of the main regions and subregions of the world in 2014/15. It focuses on one of the thresholds used for classification that identifies levels of “severe” food insecurity. This indicator expresses the situation of an individual who experienced “hunger” in the sense that, she or he was “hungry but did not eat and/or went without eating for a whole day because there was not enough money or other resources for food”, at least once during the 12-month period preceding the survey. For the purpose of global hunger monitoring, two indicators have been recommended: the prevalence of undernourishment, According to the FIES estimates, approximately 7.5 percent of the world population aged 15 years or more, nearly 1 FIES is a new metric for individuals’ or households’ ability to access food based on direct responses to eight questions in the Survey Module For more information, see REGIONAL OVERVIEW OF FOOD SECURITY AND NUTRITION 2016 1 406 million people, experienced severe food insecurity in 2014/15. In sub-Saharan Africa, about 26 percent of this age group, representing 153 million people, suffered from severe food insecurity in 2014/15. This rate is the highest prevalence of severe food insecurity in the world. The lowest prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa was estimated for southern Africa (20 percent) and western Africa (23 percent). Estimates for middle Africa (31 percent) and eastern Africa (28 percent) are relatively higher than the regional average (Figure 1). The prevalence of severe food insecurity in middle Africa and eastern Africa corresponds to an estimated 26 million and 62 million individuals respectively, aged 15 years or more. Improving hunger and nutrition status in these two subregions has been hindered by recurrent political instability, civil unrest and climatic hardships. Figure 1: Prevalence of severe food insecurity across subregions in SSA eastern Africa, particularly the Horn of Africa, and rendered populations highly vulnerable to food insecurity and malnutrition. T...
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