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ch 1 - Chapter 1 Outline Need for Psychological Science 1...

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Chapter 1 Outline Need for Psychological Science 1. Two phenomena: a. Hindsight Bias i. Def : the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. b. “I-knew-it-all-along” phenomenon i. Example: After the stock market crashed, investment gurus say the market was obviously overdue for corrections… c. Judgmental Overconfidence i. We tend to think we know more than we do 2. Both illustrate why we cannot rely solely on intuition and common sense 3. Hindsight Bias and overconfidence often lead us to overestimate our intuition a. Scientific inquiry, curious skepticism, and humility can help distinguish between reality and illusions The Scientific Attitude 1. Separating reality from fantasy or sense from nonsense : a. Scientific attitude : i. Skeptical – not cynical ii. Open – not gullible 2. Curious Skepticism – what do you mean? How do you know?
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3. Humility – needed to reject our own ideas 4. We all view nature through the spectacles of our preconceived ideas 5. **Critical Thinking a. Def: thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions—it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions. 6. Healthy skepticism can degenerate into negative cynicism that scorns away unproven ideas 7. Humility—proves awareness of our own vulnerability to error a. Openness to new perspectives The Scientific Method a. Def: a self-correcting process for asking questions and observing nature’s answer 2. Purpose : a. Make observations b. Form theories c. Refine theories made in light of new observations 3. Theory a. Def : an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations b. Theories simplify things by organization 4. Good theories explain by: a. Organizing and linking observed facts
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b. Implying hypothesis that offer testable predictions and practical applications 5. Hypothesis a. Def : a testable prediction, often implied by theory 6. Operational Definition a. Def : a statement of the procedures used to define research variables i. Psychologists use this to check biases b. Example: human intelligence may be operationally defined as what a intelligence test measures 7. Replication a. Def : repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances. Description The Case Study a. Def: an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles. 2. Intensive case studies are mainly very revealing to important information 3. Anecdotal Cases a. Dramatic stories b. Personal experiences
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c. Psychological case examples 4. **Individual cases can suggest other methods a.
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