Chapter 2 Outline - Chapter 2 Outline: Neuroscience and...

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Chapter 2 Outline: Neuroscience and Behavior Inputs and Outputs to the Brain a. Input Lines : Arteries and afferent nerves b. Output Lines : Veins and efferent nerves c. Mnemonic : i. Input/Artery/Afferent before ii. Output/Vein/Efferent d. Afferent=arrive e. Efferent=exit 2. Reception a. Arteries i. Glucose ii. CO2 iii. Hormones b. Afferent nerves--PNS i. The 5 senses ii. Kinesthesia iii. Interoception (from internal organs) 3. Integration a. CNS i. Spinal cord + brain 4. Reaction a. Veins i. Hormones b. Efferent nerves—PNS
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i. Voluntary muscles ii. Involuntary muscles iii. Endocrine glands 5. Everything psychological is simultaneously biological 6. Biological psychologists a. A branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior i. Hunger and sex ii. Stress and disease iii. Depression and schizophrenia iv. Sleep and dreams 7. Nervous system a. Peripheral i. Autonomic 1. Controls self-regulated action of internal organs and glands a. Sympathetic—arousing i. Dilates pupils ii. Accelerates heartbeat iii. Inhibits digestion iv. Stimulates glucose released by liver v. Stimulates secretion of epinephrine, norepinephrine vi. Stimulates ejaculation in male ii. Somatic 1. Controls voluntary movement of skeletal muscles a. Parasympathetic—calming
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i. Contracts pupils ii. Slows heartbeat iii. Stimulates digestion iv. Stimulates gull bladder v. Contracts bladder vi. Stimulates erection of sexual organs b. Antagonistic systems push against each other to reach a shifting balance point 8. Neural communication a. Neurons—a nerve cell; the basic building of the nervous system i. Generate electricity from positive chemical charges 1. Ions ii. Fluid interior of resting axon=negative ions iii. Fluid outside of axon membrane=positively ions 1. Positive/negative ion state—resting potential b. Axon—the extension of a neuron ending in branching terminal fibers where messages are passed c. Dendrite—the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses d. Myelin sheath—a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons i. Enables greater transmission speed of neural impulses e. A neuron fires an impulse when it receives signals from sense receptors stimulated by pressure, heat, or light, or chemical messages from nearby
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Chapter 2 Outline - Chapter 2 Outline: Neuroscience and...

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