England in the New World•England was one of the last European countries to begin exploration (late 16th century)•The search for new markets, political unrest, religious persecution, and bad economic conditions fueled emigration and exploration.•Queen Elizabeth I encouraged exploration, but unlike Spain, did not finance these explorations.
Founding of the Thirteen Mainland Colonies•The first permanent English settlements were mostly business enterprises:•They were small, fragile communities that were unprepared for the hardships they were to face.•There were few efforts to blend English society with the society of the natives.•They wished to transplant the English world they left behind.•However, English immigrants found a world populated by Native American tribes, colonists, explorers, and traders from Spain, France, and the Netherlands, and by immigrants from other parts of Europe and, soon, Africa.•American society was from the beginning a fusion of many cultures, a middle ground, in which disparate people and cultures coexisted.
Virginia (Chesapeake)•In 1606, the merchant group, the London Company, received permission from James I to create settlements in North America. The company expected a quick profit from their venture because the settlers were there to find gold, silver, and copper. •In 1607, the settlers established an outpost on Chesapeake Bay. They thought it would be easy to defend against attack from Spanish ships and local Indians.•What they didn’t realize was that the swampy area was an unhealthy environment. Disease caused by insect bites killed many Englishmen that summer.•By winter, starvation had replaced disease as the primary danger. The gentlemen colonists, unaccustomed to working, refused to clear fields or do any manual labor at all; their personal servants were just as inept.
Virginia, con’d•By January 1608, only 38 of the original settlers were alive. Jamestown, Virginia survived largely due to Captain John Smithtaking control of the colony. He imposed work and order on the community.•Smith also organized raids on neighboring Indian villages to steal food and kidnap natives.•Despite Smith’s attempts to organize Jamestown, its woes continued until 1610. What would eventually save the settlement, and ensure further colonization, was ______. The plant had become very popular in England. When it was discovered that _____ grew well in the soils around Jamestown, the colonists began to plant and harvest as many acres of _______ as possible.
Virginia, con’d•Tobacco dominated most aspects of Virginian life:•Colonists spread themselves over vast areas due to needing large tracts of land for a crop that rapidly depleted the soil.•Consequently, they did not settle in towns or farming communities.
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