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06-Intellectual_Property - Intellectual Property CHAPTER...

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Intellectual Property C HAPTER  O UTLINE I. TRADEMARKS AND  RELATED PROPERTY A. T RADEMARKS The  Lanham  Act protects  trademarks  at  the  federal  level. Many  states  also  have  statutes  that  protect  trademarks. 1. What a Trademark Is A distinctive  mark,  motto, device, or emblem  that  a manufacturer  stamps,  prints,  or otherwise  af- fixes to the goods it produces to distinguish them  from the goods of other manufacturers. 2. The Federal Trademark Dilution Act of 1995 Prohibits  dilution  (unauthorized  use of marks on goods  or services, even if they do not compete di- rectly with products whose marks are copied). 3. Trademark Registration A trademark  may  be registered  with  a state or the federal govern ment.  Trademarks  do not need  to  be registered  to be protected. a. Requirements for Federal Registration A trademark  may  be filed  with  the U.S. Patent  and  Trademark  Office on the basis of (1) use or  (2) the intent to use the mark within  six months (which may be extended  to thirty months). b. Renewal of Federal Registration Between  the  fifth and  sixth  years  and  then  every  ten  years  (twenty  years  for marks  registered   before 1990). 4. Requirements for Trademark Protection The extent to which the law protects a trademark  is normally determined  by how   distinctive  it is. a. Strong Marks Fanciful, arbitrary, or suggestive marks are considered  most distinctive. b. Descriptive Terms, Geographic Terms, and Personal Names These are not inherently  distinctive  and  not protected  until they  acquire  a   secondary meaning  (which means that customers associate the mark with the source of a product) c. Generic Terms Terms such as  bicycle  or  computer  receive no protection, even if they acquire secondary  meaning. 5. Trademark Infringement This occurs when  a trademark  is copied  to a substantial degree or used  in its entirety by another. 1
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B. T RADE  D RESS    Trade  dress  is  the  image  and  appearance  of  a  product,  and  is  subject  to  the  same  protection  as  trademarks. C. S ERVICE , C ERTIFICATION AND  C OLLECTIVE  M ARKS Laws that apply to trademarks  normally also apply to— 1. Service Marks These  are  used  to  distinguish   the  services  of  one  person   or  company  from  those  of  another.  Registered  in the same manner  as trademarks.
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06-Intellectual_Property - Intellectual Property CHAPTER...

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