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Unformatted text preview: ^ bi H 2 ( WORKS ISSUED BY FIEST VOYAGE ROUND THE WORLD, BY MAGELLAN. No. LII. Digitized by tine Internet Arciiive in 2011 witii funding from Boston Public Library mmmm Boston Public Librarj, THE FIRST VOYAGE ROUND THE WORLD, ^^ti^ii >i4 MAGELLAN. TRANSLATED PROM THE ACCOUNTS OF PIGAFETTA, AND OTHER CONTEMPORARY WRITERS. ^ccainpanieU bg ©rtginal IBocuments, Suitfj ^otts ant) an Inttoiuction, LOED STANLEY OF ALDEKLEY. LONDON : PRINTED FOR THE HAKLUYT SOCIETY. M.DCCCLXXIV. / T. BICHARBS, 37, oL^*^ ^ SEEAT QUEEN STBEKT. COUNCIL THE HAKLUYT SOCIETY The Right Hon. Sir DAVID DITNDAS, Peesibknt. Reak-Admirai, C. R. DRINKWATER BETHUNE, Majoe-General Sie HENRY RAWLINSON, C.B. K.C.B., f.R.S., ^ ^^^^"^"^^^°^^''®' C ^ Pees.R.G.S. W. A. TYSSBN AMHURST, Esq. Rev. De. GEORGE BARROW, J. P. BADGER, D.C.L., F.R.S. Esq., F.R.S. Vice-Admieal R. COLLINSON, C.B. Captain W. E. COLOMB, FRERE, EGERTON V. R.N. Esq. HARCOURT, JOHN WINTER JONES, R. H. Sie MAJOR, Esq. Esq., F.S.A. Esq., F.S.A. CHARLES NICHOLSON, Sie W. Baet., D.C.L. STIRLING MAXWELL, Baet. ERASMUS OMMANNEY, C.B,, Reae-Admieal SHERARD OSBORN, C.B. Vice-Admieal F.R.S. The Lord STANLEY of Aldeelet. EDWARD THOMAS, Esq., F.R.S. The Hon. FREDERICK WALPOLE, M.P. CLEMENTS R. MARKHAM, Esq., C.B., F.R.S., Sec.R.G.S., Honoeaet Seceetaey. CONTENTS. Introduction The Genoese . . . . i-ls Voyage 1-29 . Pilot's Account of Magellan's Narrative of the Anonymous Portuguese Pigafetta's Account of Magellan's 30-32 Voyage 35-163 Pigafetta's Treatise of Navigation 164-174 Names of the First Circumnavigators 175-176 Magellan's Order of the Day in the Straits 177-178 Letter of Maximilian, the Transylvan 179-210 LoG-BooK OF Francisco Alvo or Alvaro 211-236 Account of the " Trinity" and her Crew 237-242 Account of the Mutiny in Port St. Julian, and Caspar Correa's Account of the Voyage 243-256 .... .... Cost of Magellan's Fleet Appendix Index 257 i-xiv xvii-xx PLATES AND MAPS. Portrait of Magellan to face Title Arms of Magellan 1 Facsimiles of Signatures 1 Pigafetta's Map of the Straits 65 Track of the "Victoria" in the Pacific Islands of Amsterdam and St. Paul . 177 INTRODUCTION AND LIFE OF MAGELLAN Teucer Salamina patremque Qaum tamen uda Ljseo fugeret, Tempora populea fertur vinxisse corona, Sic tristes afFatus amicos Quo nos cunque Ibimus, o : feret melior socii comitesque Fortuna parewte, ! Nil desperandum Teucro duce et auspice Teucro ; Certus enim promisit Apollo Ambiguam fortes, Mecum tellure nova Salamina futuram. pejoraque passi ssepe viri, nunc vino pellite curas : Cras ingens iterabimus sequor. Though Magellan's enterprise was tlie greatest ever undertaken by any navigator, yet he has heen deprived due fame by the jealousy which has always of his existed between the insula : two nations inhabiting the Pen- the Spaniards would not manded by brook being com- a Portuguese, and the Portuguese have not yet forgiven Magellan for having abandoned them to serve Castile. if But Magellan really had no choice ; for the western passage which he expected to discover was to be sought for, it auspices of Spain, within waters lay. could only be under the whose demarcation those INTRODUCTION AND 11 It would seem that D. Manuel had only himself blame for the loss of Magellan's services ; and, as to M. Amoretti well observes, D. Manuel ought to have been aware of well Charles them. V the knew It is it, value those of and showed difficult to his since services, appreciation of believe that the injury of which Magellan complained, and which led him to seek other refusal of w^ell service, was merely, as Osorio says, the promotion in palace rank, and which he deserved, especially since the motive ascribed liad by Osorio to the king's refusal, namely the necessity of avoiding a bad precedent, was not alone a sufficieut affront to account for Magellan's sacrificing hopes and property in his also felt that the king obscurity, and own his country, had he not was condemning him uselessness. all to inaction, Barros, indeed, says that " The favours of princes given for services are a retributive justice, which must be observed equally with all, with man and that if a man's porbe denied him, though he endures it ill, yet he will have patience ; but if he see the advancement of those who have profited more by ai tifice and friends than by their own merits, he loses all patience ; indignation, hatred, and despair arise, and he will commit faults injurious to himself and others. And what outraged Magellan more than the refusal of the half ducat a month, was that some men who were with him at Azamor, said that his lameness was feigned regard to the quality of each : tion to support his petition." The king, moreover, refused to receive Magellan, showed his ill-will against him. and It is therefore highly probable that before Magellan took the step of leaving Portugal, D. Manuel, prompted by his niggardly dis- LIFE OF MAGELLAN. position, -Ill had refused to entertain Magellan's employment desire for at sea, or his projects of discovery, which no immediate profit was to be expected. from This apparent from the statement of Barros, Decad. is lib. V, iii, Magellan to Francisco cap. viii, that letters of Serrano were found after the death of the latter in Maluco, in which Magellan said that he should soon see him ; and, were not by way of Portugal, if it would be by way therefore wait for of Castile, him it and that Serrano should Further on, Barros says there. that recourse to Castile appears from these letters to have been in Magellan's mind some time before the occurrence of the king's dismissal of his business that this was pilots, shown by his : and always associating with and occupying himself with sea-charts. The Portuguese exaggerated very much the injury they expected to result, and, later, which they thought had resulted from Magellan's voyage, which could not change the position of the Moluccas, nor consequently them but the apprehensions the Portuguese title which they arose from their fear of others sharing felt, in the spice trade, to ; and from the limited geographical knowledge of the period, which much left both parties very in doubt as to the true position of those islands, or as to the extent of the circumference of the globe. The question of the exact position of the Moluccas not definitely ascertained till much later, was though a compromise was arrived at in 1529 by the treaty between Spain and Portugal, by which Charles up whatever V gave rights to the Moluccas he imagined he possessed, to Portugal, for a sum of three hundred and h 2 INTRODUCTION" AND IV fifty thousand ducats.^ As mentions, torn, guese India, who iii, late as 1535, Gaspar Correa p. 661, a Dominican friar in Portu- who was learned in cosmography, and asserted that the Moluccas fell within the demar- cation of Castile, The grounds Magellan of complaint of the Portuguese against perhaps, are, strongest terms, best by Bishop expressed, Osorio, so it may quote from him the following passage. '^ About this and in the be well to Lib. xi, § 23. time a slight offence on the part of the king (D. Manuel) so grievously exasperated the mind of a certain and religion, he hastened to beti^ay the king who had educated him, and the country which had brought him forth ; and he risked his Ferdinand Magellan, of life amongst the greatest perils. whom we have before spoken, was a man of noble birth, and endued with a high spirit. He had given proofs in India, in warlike affairs, of courage and perseverance in no small degree. Likewise in Africa he had performed his duties with great ardour. Formerly it was the custom among the Portuguese that the king's servants should be fed in the palace at the king's expense ; but when the number of these servants had become so great (because the sons of the king's Portuguese, that, forgetful of all faith, P^ety, the same station, and besides, many were admitted for their services into the king's household), it was seen to be very difficult to prepare the food of such a multitude. On this account it was determined by the Kings of Portugal that the food which each man was to receive in the officers retained palace should be provided by himself out of the king^s money. Thus it was settled that a certain sum of money was assigned per month to each man. That money, indeed, 1 See Appendix V, pp. 392-396, to De Morga's Philippine Hakluyt Society, with respect to the negotiations about Islands, the Moluccas. LIFE OF MAGELLAN. when men V provisions were so cheap, provided abundantly for the but j now that the number commodities had increased, it of men, and the prices of happened that the sum, which formerly was more than sufficient for their daily expenses, was now much too small. Moreover, as all the dignity of the Portuguese depends upon the king, this small sum of money is as eagerly sought after as though it were much more amjole. And as the Portuguese think that the thing most to be desired is to be enrolled amongst the king^s household, so also, they consider the greatest honour to conan increase of this stipend. sist in ranks of king's servants, so the For, as there are various sum money of assigned is The to each servant according to the dignity of his rank. highest class is that of nobleman; but, as there are distinc- tions of nobility, so Thus it an equal salary is not given to happens that the nobility of each all. estimated ac- is cording to the importance of this stipend, and each one held to be more noble in proportion to the This judgment, stipend which he receives. human affairs go, often most false is ; for is more ample indeed, many as obtain through ambition and pertinacity what ought to be assigned to deserts and innate nobleness. The Portuguese, however, since they are over anxious in seeking this nobility, and imagine that their nobility is increased by a small accession of salary, very often think that they little sum it. strive for this their well-being and Now, Magellan contended that of money, as though dignity depended upon must all be increased monthly by him, lest an entrance should be opened to ambitious persons. Magellan, excited by the injury of the refusal of this advantage to him at that time, abandoned the king, broke his faith, and brought the for his services, his stipend should half a ducat. The king refused State into extreme danger. the injuries inflicted outrages of kings, whilst we ought And whilst we ought by the who to lay it State, to tolerate and to endure also the are the fathers of the republick, down we owe our country, which lives and our lives for the well-being of to our country ; this most INTRODUCTION AND VI man conceived such despite on account of half a ducat, amounting to five denarii, which was refused to him^ that he opposed the State ; he offended the king, who had audacious brought him up ; and brought his country, for Vt'hich he should have died, into peril. For the affair reached such a pitch that the danger of a perilous war impended over the commonwealth. I do not know, indeed, whence so barbarous a custom has crept into the State for, whilst the name of a traitor is not only hateful and hated, but also burns in : the stain of everlasting dishonour upon a whole postei-ity men who determine upon breaking their faith, and opstates, may reject the favours they formal letters, may abjure their fealty, and have received by yet posing their kings or despoil themselves of the rights and duties of the State; they bid the king keep for himself that which belongs to him, and they attest that thenceforward they will common with their country that allowable for it is Be them : have nothing in then, at length, they contend to commence war against their contemn grumble much as you as ; please, that a reward equal to your dignity has not been granted. But by what means can you betray the faith which you have plighted ? My country has inflicted on me country. it so: reject favours if it please you; the liberality of your country a severe outrage; it has inflicted, indeed, the worst. But an outrage is not to be avenged, either upon parents or upon one^s country. I have abandoned, he says, all that I had received from my country. Have you then rejected life, disposition, and education ? By no means. But all these things ; you received them, in the first place, from God, and then from the laws, customs, and institutions of your country. It will never be allowable to combat nature, to injure your country, or to break faith, even should you be laden with every injury. Nay, your life should be given up, and the most extreme punishments should be undergone, sooner than break your faith, or betray your duty. Abjure fealty as much as you please, attest public letters, leave to posterity a notable your perfidy by memory of un- LIFE OF MAGELLAN. . Vll speakable wickedness ; yet you will not be able by any such document to avoid offending the Deity, nor the stain of an everlasting opprobi-ium.''^ Against this view of Osorio may passage from Vattel, which has that is it is all be set the following the more weight, in simply an enunciation of law and right, and not written to support or to denounce any particular person. " Many distinctions will be necessary, in order to give a complete solution to the celebrated question, whether a man may q^uit his country, or tlie society of ivhicJi he is a member. ciety in The children are bound by natural ties to the sowhich they were born; they are under an obligation shew themselves grateful for the protection it has afforded and are in a great measure indebted to it for their birth and education. They ought, therefore, to love it, as we have already shewn, to express a just gratitude to it, and requite its services as far as possible by serving it in turn. We have observed above, that they have a right to enter into the society of which their fathers were members. But every man is born free ; and the son of a citizen, when come to the years of discretion, may examine whether it be convenient for him to join the society for which he was deIf he does not find it advantageous to stined by his birth. remain in it, he is at liberty to quit it, on making it a compensation for what it has done in his favour, and preserving, as far as his new engagements will allow him, the sentiments Ghittys translation of of love and gratitude he owes it.^^ Vattel, book i, cap. xix, § 220. to to their fathers, There are also some remarkable passages in a pamphlet by Condorcet, dated October Opinion sur les attention, both in which it Emigrants. on account of was written, 25th, 1791, This its named opinion deserves author and the time when popular passions and vm INTRODUCTION AND much prejudices were excited against tliose who were expatriating themselves from France. Condorcet beoins with the statement, that "It is a great error to imagine that the pubhc utihty is not constantly to be found united with the rights of individuals, or that the public well-being may demand acts of This error has everywhere been the eternal real injustice. excuse for the inroads of tyranny, and the pretest for the manoeuvres employed to establish it.^ " On the contrary, in the case of every measure that is proposed as useful, it must first be examined whether it is Should it not be so, it must be concluded that it had just. only an empty and fallacious appearance of utility. artful " Nature concedes to every man the right of going out of his country ; the constitution guarantees it to every French The Frenchman citizen, and we cannot strike a blow at it. who wishes to leave his country, for his business, for his and well-being, ought he ought to be able to use this liberty, without his absence depriving him of the least of his rights. In a great empire, the variety of professions, and inequality of fortunes, do not admit of residence and personal service being regarded as a common obligation which the law may impose upon all citizens. This rigorhealth, even for the sake of his peace to have the fullest liberty to do so : ous obligation can only exist in the case of absolute necessity to ; all seem ful to extend periods it to the habitual state of society, when and even the public safety or tranquillity may menaced, would be to disturb the order of uselabours, and to attack the sources of general prospeto be rity. " Every man, moreover, has the right to change try ; he may renounce that in which he was boi'n, ^ This opinion "pious founders". may be recommended to those his coun- to choose who war on LIFE OF MAGELLAN". From another. try, he is returns to tliat moment, as a citizen of his but any property in only a foreigner in the it, if he has enjoy there to the full left IX first the rights of ; man ; new coun- if some day he it, he ought to he has only de- served to lose those of a citizen. " But here a first question presents itself. Is this citizen by his sole renunciation released from every obligation towards the body politic which he abandons ? Does the society from which he separates himself lose immediately all its rights over him ? Doubtless, not ; and I do not speak only of those sentiments which a noble and grateful soul preserves for its country, even though it be unjust ; I speak of rigorous obligations, of those which a man cannot fail to and 1 say that fulfil without becoming guilty of an offence there exists a time during which a man placed between his ancient and his new country can only permit himself to express hopes as to the differences which arise between them a time when that one of the two nations against which he might bear arms would have the right to punish him as an assassin ; and when the man who might employ his riches or talents against his former countrymen, would really be a : : traitor. "I add that each nation has also the right to fix the who abandons it is to be considered as free from all obligation, and to determine what are his duties until the expiration of that period, and what actions it still preserves the power to forbid him. To deny this principle, would be to break all the social bonds which can bind men together. This period, doubtless, is not an arbitrary one ; it is that during which the citizen who abdicates can employ against his country the means which he has received from it, and during which he can do it more injury than could a foreigner." will time after which the citizen Further on, Condorcet proposes two years as the period during which a citizen who renounces his nationality shall engage not to enter the service of any INTRODUCTION AND X foreign power, unless he has been authorised so to do by a decree of the national assembly. He also proposes various measures for different classes of emigrants, and the full enjoyment of their property on the same ing as foreigners, by those who foot- sign an engagement not to take foreign service for two years, nor during that time to solicit against the nation or Magellan fully Vattel, as may the its of aid any foreign power constituted authorities. satisfied the conditions specified be seen by his Sebastian Alvarez, the King by conversations with of Portugal's agent this date, also, it is sufiiciently clear that : at Magellan not only did no harm to his native country, but that he increased renown by its his own services, and by those whom he associated of the other Portuguese ofiicers with his labours. Gama If his countrymen have preferred to him, it is because he only served the interests of science, whilst Gama served the pa.ssions of his countrymen, and aided them to enrich themselves. After D. Manuel had refused employment and advance- ment to Magellan, and seemed inclined to leave him in the obscurity of a small garrison in Africa, the Portu- guese would seem to have no more right to complain by the opportunities offered by Spain, than the Genoese would have had, if they had of Magellan's profiting reproached Columbus for availing himself in a similar way of the resources of that country. is true...
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