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hist 2 study guide

hist 2 study guide - Crisis of the Late Middle Ages Black...

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Crisis of the Late Middle Ages - Black Death (1350): collection of communicable diseases from trade paths o Caused by fleas on rats that followed merchants o Italians end up importing it - Social destabilization: changes on the land and noble anxieties: o People survived were better off since there was more to eat o Merchants were hurt o The nobles were nervous that lower classes would gain more - Dynastic conflict and the growth of the territorial state o 100 years war(1337-1453): English/French French made themselves more powerful, French drive English out - *HS*: Important because it was the initial step of state formation Fall of Constantinople (1453) - Meshed II conquers @ siege of Const. - *HS*Constantinople is the only link remaining of Old Rome - Many believed it was the end of the world - Diplomacy doesn’t work, Ottoman’s wanted all control of Byzantines - *HS*All routes became blocked, Europeans had to try and find more ways; European attempts at exploration commence from a position of weakness & Euro achievements (exploration, colonization,, etc) are extensions of state formation and initial competition Luis de Camoes Galleon - Spanish treasure fleets to the Atlantic and pacific o Giant hull, 500-2000 tons, powered by wind o *HS* didn’t require large crews like in galleys(row powered ship that needed large crews which cut into profits) thus allowing Europeans to go through with long distance trades Iberian culture hearth - equation for Euro Expansion: “reconquista” on the peninsula (medieval pd) - northern Christian kingdoms push Muslim kingdoms out: thus conquering and becoming more in power - taifas(Muslim states) - *HS*provides mechanisms and processes for expansion, Spanish use later in Americas especially with systems of labor and migration - requerimiento :”convert to Catholicism or leave” o “legitimating for war, accept monarchy of Spain or we will kill you” - Iberian initiative (refers to 15/6th century Portuguese and Spanish) State formation - Little kingdoms become states; monarch becomes more powerful Isabella and Ferdinand - Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand II - Union of two largest Catholic families - Exploration as extension of “state building” - Marriage creates: Nationalist, catholic zeal - Push last of Muslims out 1492 Grenada Encomienda system - Systems of labor: Spanish success is based on organization of slavery - Local tribute: Encomienda grant o Right to people’s labor in local area Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) - *HS*Settled Portuguese and Spanish claims for trade and expansion
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- Conjunction with papacy - People through Portuguese were getting better deals - In the long run, Spanish have more success o Portuguese (coastal conquering more difficult to maintain): spread selves too thin! Not enough man power , and disease in India and Africa was bad o Spanish able to conquer Latin America effectively Spanish easier: resources, advanced Jan Hus - Late 14 th century: professor in Progue?
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