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Unformatted text preview: Crisis of the Late Middle Ages- Black Death (1350): collection of communicable diseases from trade paths o Caused by fleas on rats that followed merchants o Italians end up importing it- Social destabilization: changes on the land and noble anxieties: o People survived were better off since there was more to eat o Merchants were hurt o The nobles were nervous that lower classes would gain more- Dynastic conflict and the growth of the territorial state o 100 years war(1337-1453): English/French French made themselves more powerful, French drive English out- *HS*: Important because it was the initial step of state formation Fall of Constantinople (1453)- Meshed II conquers @ siege of Const. - *HS*Constantinople is the only link remaining of Old Rome- Many believed it was the end of the world- Diplomacy doesnt work, Ottomans wanted all control of Byzantines- *HS*All routes became blocked, Europeans had to try and find more ways; European attempts at exploration commence from a position of weakness & Euro achievements (exploration, colonization,, etc) are extensions of state formation and initial competition Luis de Camoes Galleon- Spanish treasure fleets to the Atlantic and pacific o Giant hull, 500-2000 tons, powered by wind o *HS* didnt require large crews like in galleys(row powered ship that needed large crews which cut into profits) thus allowing Europeans to go through with long distance trades Iberian culture hearth- equation for Euro Expansion: reconquista on the peninsula (medieval pd)- northern Christian kingdoms push Muslim kingdoms out: thus conquering and becoming more in power- taifas(Muslim states)- *HS*provides mechanisms and processes for expansion, Spanish use later in Americas especially with systems of labor and migration- requerimiento :convert to Catholicism or leave o legitimating for war, accept monarchy of Spain or we will kill you- Iberian initiative (refers to 15/6th century Portuguese and Spanish) State formation- Little kingdoms become states; monarch becomes more powerful Isabella and Ferdinand- Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand II- Union of two largest Catholic families- Exploration as extension of state building- Marriage creates: Nationalist, catholic zeal- Push last of Muslims out 1492 Grenada Encomienda system- Systems of labor: Spanish success is based on organization of slavery- Local tribute: Encomienda grant o Right to peoples labor in local area Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)- *HS*Settled Portuguese and Spanish claims for trade and expansion- Conjunction with papacy- People through Portuguese were getting better deals- In the long run, Spanish have more success o Portuguese (coastal conquering more difficult to maintain): spread selves too thin!...
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