Sociology Social structureWe have free will but behavior and how our lives turn out happen w in a larger contextWe are all interconnected and in situation together. oIndividuals are embedded within a social network What is Sociology?Scientific study of the dynamic relationship between individual people and social systems and their influence on human behavior and social life. KNOW THIS!!!Defined more by its perspective (sociological ation) than a particular subject matter. Sociologists believe that outside forces effect how we act. IndividualismStrongly rooted in enlightenmentoValued the mind of the individual Made ppl believe social problems are caused by flaws in individual character. Society= individual ppl Ignores difference between individuals and social relationships, social forces. Pic on phoneoIndividualsare part of groupswhich are part of social systems. Individual and society= two sides of the same coin. You need both. They can’t be separatedIndividual can’t be defined w/o understanding the relationship to the social “our very identity is a social creation that is constantly sustained by social relationships both small and large.”Social systems/Structurescollection of statuses, roles, and shared ideas (norms and values) tie statuses and roles together into relationships. oEx) families, universities, or whole societies Social institutionsComplex groups of interdependent positions that perform a social role and reproduce themselvesoEx) family, education, economy, government, religion Our lives are shaped by socialization and social control. We make social structures happen. You can’t have social structures w/o individuals. Main PointsIndividualistic perspective that dominates current thinking is limitedSocial structures cannot be understood simply by looking at individuals.
Scientific StudySociology is based on an epistemology of empiricism oEpistemology: how we know what we claim to know oEmpiricism: knowledge through evidence gathered from sensesHistory of Sociology– industrial revolution Shift in economic structure of society away from agriculture Mass movement away from rural life on farms and cities and work in factoriesHad influence on all aspects of social life and brought new social problems including urban poverty. Auguste Comte- society can be understood by determining the logic or scientific laws governing human behavior Harriet Martineau- translated Comte’s work into English; she advocated for racial, gender, and class equality. Karl MarxoMaterialist conception of history: all social patterns and relations stem from the economic systemArgued that class conflicted produced social change/ drove history Struggle between “haves” and “have nots”oClass struggle under capitalism was between capitalists and proletariatCapitalists: those who owned the means of production (small #) reaped the benefits.