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What is deviant behavior?
Explanations of Deviance6 major theoriesBiological/psychological FunctionalistoAnomie/DurkheimoStrain theory/MertonSymbolic interactionismoDifferential associationoSocial disorganization/broken windowsolabelingConflict theory oPower elite/Mills 1.Biological/PsychologicalCesar Lombroso (1911) “observed” physical characteristics of criminalsoShifty eyes2.Functionalist – DurkheimDeviance is inevitable and performs useful functions: o(1) can bring people together (group solidarity) o(2) force innovation and change. Collective conscience: ocommon set of norms and beliefs about how the world worksbinds people together, encourages conformitydefines what is considered deviant and how it is punished
Anomieosense of aimlessness or despair that arises when social norms no longer strongly guide individual behavior and social life is no longer predictable. Defining deviance can reestablish collective conscience, clarifying moral boundaries. Deviance can also push/change those boundariesoRosa parks sitting in the front of the bus.Strain Theory Argues that anomie and deviance occur when a society does not give all its members equal means to achieve socially acceptable goalsoFeels strain when unable to achieve cultural goals through culturally approved means. Robert MertonAnomie and deviance are built into the structure of modern society bc norms do not match social structure. 3.Symbolic interactionist- differential associationoDeviant behavior is learned through a socialization process that occurs from associating w others who engage in crimesocial disorganizationoDeviance is caused by broad social factors, particularly disorganization in the social environment.“broken windows” theory of deviance oany sign of a social disorder leads to more disorder oZimbardo experiments Left car in palo alto for a week (no one did anything to it)One week later he punched a hole and then left it When he came back other people had vandalized it as well labeling oDeviance and conformity result not so much from what people do as from how others define their actions. oPeople behave the way they think someone with their label should behave The process of labelingoPrimary devianceThe first act of rule breaking, which may result in being labeled “deviant” and influence how people think about you. oSecondary deviance

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