Chapter 12 turchyn need to knows for final.docx

Chapter 12 turchyn need to knows for final.docx - Chapter...

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Chapter 12: Need to know for Final Exam · Function of blood- transports nutrients · Blood contains- homeostasis · Blood made of cells and plasma · Plasma is made of water (mainly) and fibrinogins, globulins, and albumins · Blood cells include leukosytes, erythrocytes (red blood cells, lacking nucleus, concaved disc), and thrombocytes · Erthyrocytes have hemoglobin, which transports oxygen · Erthyrocytes are destroyed by liver and spleen, but are formed during hematopeosis in red bone marrow · Leukocytes=WBC that defend against diseases o Lymphocytes= antibodies o Monocytes= macrophages o Basophils= contains histamine and heparin (inflammatory) o Eosinophils= attacks parasites o Neutrophils= active phagocytes · Thrombocytes= platelets (hemostasis to stop bleeding) · As number of platelets increase, blood clots increase · Location of the heart o Behind sternum, in mediastinum between 2 pleural cavities (lungs) o Pericardial layer of the heart § Lined with serous membrane in pericardial cavity § Visceral pericardium covers heart § Parietal pericardium lines inner surface of pericardial sac · Pericardial fluid is found between to reduce friction Auricle= expandable extension of atrium · Three fat filled sulci o Coronary sulcus = deep groove marking border of atrium and ventricles o Posterior & Anterior/ Interventricular sulcus = shallow grooves that mark border between right and left ventricles · Base o Superior end of heart · Apex o Bottom of the heart 3 layers of the heart wall o Epicardium (outer)= visceral pericardium covering outer surface of heart o epithelium and areolar tissue o Myocardium (middle) = muscular wall of the heart , contains cardiac muscle cells, blood vessels, and nerves
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o Endocardium= covers the inside chambers Endothelium- simple squamous · Cardiac Muscle Tissue Arrangement o Forms band that wrap around chambers, twisting and squeezing during contraction · Cardiac Muscle Cells o Smaller than skeletal muscle cells o Myofibrils are organized in sarcomeres (SO DOES SKELETAL) o Striated!!!!o Intercalated discs § Held together by desmosomes (conherins)?? § Linked by gap junctions § Enable potential to travel RAPIDLY o Large amounts of mitochondria- RELIES ON AEROBIC METABOLISM TO MAKE ATP · Connective tissue in the heart o 1. Provides support for cardiac muscle fibers, blood vessels, and nerves o 2. Add strength and prevent overexpansion o 3. Help heart return to normal shape after contractions · Internal Antatomy of heart o MUSCULAR PARTITIONS § Interatrial septum - seperates 2 atria § Interventricular septum -seperates 2 ventricles o Atrioventricular valves (2 of them: right and left) § Folds of fibrous tissue § Functions as one way valves , blood flow in ONE direction o Vessels flowing into the right atrium § Superior vena cava ( DEOXYGENATED BLOOD) · Carries blood from head, neck, upper limbs, and chest § Inferior vena cava (DEOXYGENATED) · Blood from rest of trunk and lower limbs § Coronary Sinus (
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