Making-Global-Trade-Work-for-People.pdf - MAKING GLOBAL TRADE WORK FOR PEOPLE United Nations Development Programme EARTHSCAN Publications Ltd MAKING

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Unformatted text preview: MAKING GLOBAL TRADE WORK FOR PEOPLE United Nations Development Programme EARTHSCAN Publications Ltd. MAKING GLOBAL TRADE WORK FOR PEOPLE [-2], (2) Lines: 21 t ——— 0.0pt Pg ——— Normal Pa PgEnds: TE [-2], (2) MAKING GLOBAL TRADE WORK FOR PEOPLE United Nations Development Programme Earthscan Publications Ltd London and Sterling, Virginia Published for United Nations Development Programme First published in the UK and USA in 2003 by Earthscan Publications Ltd Copyright © 2003 United Nations Development Programme One United Nations Plaza New York, NY 10017 All rights reserved A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN: 1 85383 982 5 paperback 1 85383 981 7 hardback DISCLAIMER The responsibility for opinions in this book rests solely with its authors. Publication does not constitute an endorsement by the United Nations Development Programme or the institutions of the United Nations system or the Heinrich Böll Foundation, Rockefeller Brothers Fund, Rockefeller Foundation, or Wallace Global Fund. Design and layout by Communications Development, Washington, DC Printed in the UK by The Bath Press Cover by Yvonne Booth based on a design by Karin Hug Cover photographs: floating market, hands and camel train © Panos Pictures Earthscan Publications Ltd 120 Pentonville Road, London, N1 9JN, UK Tel: +44 (0)20 7278 0433 Fax: +44 (0)20 7278 1142 Email: [email protected] Web: 22883 Quicksilver Drive, Sterling, VA 20166-2012, USA Earthscan is an editorially independent subsidiary of Kogan Page Ltd and publishes in association with WWF-UK and the International Institute for Environment and Development This book is printed on elemental chlorine-free paper CONTENTS P REFACE A CKNOWLEDGEMENTS A BBREVIATIONS G LOSSARY O VERVIEW PART 1 M AKING T RADE xi xv xix xxi GLOBAL TRADE WORK FOR PEOPLE FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT CHAPTER 1 HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND TRADE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT—THE CONCEPT AND ITS IMPLICATIONS LINKING TRADE AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IS TRADE LIBERALIZATION GOOD FOR GROWTH AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT? DOES TRADE LIBERALIZATION IMPROVE GENDER OUTCOMES? HOW DO GENDER INEQUALITIES AFFECT TRADE PERFORMANCE? WHAT REALLY MATTERS FOR TRADE AS PART OF A BROADER INDUSTRIALIZATION 1 19 21 21 24 28 32 33 34 41 42 43 AND DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY KEY MESSAGES NOTES REFERENCES CHAPTER 2 THE GLOBAL TRADE REGIME CAN THERE BE FAIR OUTCOMES WITHOUT FAIR PROCESSES? THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION—A MAJOR SHIFT IN GLOBAL TRADE RULES THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION’S FORMAL GOVERNANCE STRUCTURE SPECIAL AND DIFFERENTIAL TREATMENT ANNEX 2.1 EXCEPTIONS FROM WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION COMMITMENTS 49 49 53 54 55 58 FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES ANNEX 2.2 SPECIAL PROVISIONS FOR THE LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES IN WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION AGREEMENTS NOTES REFERENCES 59 60 60 CHAPTER 3 TOWARDS A HUMAN DEVELOPMENT–ORIENTED GLOBAL TRADE REGIME THE MULTILATERAL TRADE REGIME AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT A TRADE REGIME FRIENDLY TO HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IS POSSIBLE FROM A MARKET EXCHANGE TO A HUMAN DEVELOPMENT PERSPECTIVE NOTES REFERENCES 63 63 68 70 70 71 v CONTENT S CHAPTER 4 REFORMS TO THE GLOBAL GOVERNANCE OF TRADE CHANGES NEEDED IN THE GLOBAL TRADE REGIME BACKGROUND ANALYSIS AND ADDITIONAL ISSUES ANNEX 4.1 REGIONAL TRADE AGREEMENTS AND THE MULTILATERAL REGIME NOTES REFERENCES PART 2 A GREEMENTS AND ISSUES 73 73 77 93 100 102 105 CHAPTER 5 AGRICULTURE SHOULD AGRICULTURE BE TREATED DIFFERENTLY? TARIFFS AND MARKET ACCESS SUBSIDIES FOOD SECURITY, EMPLOYMENT AND LIVELIHOODS PROPOSALS FOR THE FUTURE NOTES REFERENCES 109 109 112 117 123 135 141 143 CHAPTER 6 COMMODITIES A BRIEF HISTORY THE SITUATION TODAY PROPOSALS FOR THE FUTURE NOTE REFERENCES 147 147 149 154 155 155 CHAPTER 7 INDUSTRIAL TARIFFS MARKET ACCESS SINCE THE URUGUAY ROUND HIGHER TARIFFS AND POLICY SPACE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES THE WAY FORWARD NOTES REFERENCES 157 158 161 162 165 165 CHAPTER 8 TEXTILES AND CLOTHING THE ROAD TO AGREEMENT ON TEXTILES AND CLOTHING: A HISTORICAL REVIEW GROWTH IN TEXTILE AND CLOTHING TRADE THE UNDERLYING DYNAMICS OF THE AGREEMENTS ON TEXTILE AND CLOTHING TRADE FACTORS AND EVENTS INFLUENCING THE PRESENT SITUATION IN TEXTILE 167 167 169 171 THE FUTURE OUTLOOK FOR TEXTILE AND CLOTHING TRADE REFERENCES 172 178 182 CHAPTER 9 ANTI-DUMPING THE FAULTY ECONOMIC LOGIC OF ANTI-DUMPING—INDUSTRY AND CONSUMERS BOTH SUFFER PROBLEMS WITH ANTI-DUMPING METHODOLOGY EFFECTS OF ANTI-DUMPING ON DEVELOPING COUNTRY EXPORTERS DEVELOPING COUNTRIES’ GROWING USE OF ANTI-DUMPING THE WAY FORWARD REFERENCES 185 186 187 189 190 192 193 AND CLOTHING TRADE vi CONTENT S CHAPTER 10 SUBSIDIES DEFINITION OF AND LIMITS ON SUBSIDIES ISSUES FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT THE WAY FORWARD REFERENCES 195 195 197 200 200 CHAPTER 11 TRADE-RELATED ASPECTS OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS THE TRIPS AGREEMENT TRIPS IN THE CONTEXT OF DEVELOPMENT IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: LINKS WITH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT TRIPS ‘PLUS’ SETTING THE AGENDA ANNEX 11.1 MAIN PROVISIONS OF THE TRIPS AGREEMENT ANNEX 11.2 TRIPS AND TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE NOTES REFERENCES 203 203 205 208 219 221 224 225 226 229 CHAPTER 12 TRADE-RELATED INVESTMENT MEASURES AND INVESTMENT THE TRIMS AGREEMENT WHERE WE ARE NOW THE WAY FORWARD INVESTMENT NOTES REFERENCES 235 235 236 240 242 252 253 CHAPTER 13 GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TRADE IN SERVICES FEATURES AND STRUCTURE OF THE AGREEMENT OPPORTUNITIES PROVIDED BY THE AGREEMENT PROBLEMS CREATED BY THE AGREEMENT: ACTUAL FLEXIBILITY HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IMPLICATIONS OF THE AGREEMENT AT THE SECTORAL LEVEL: OPERATIONALIZING BENEFICIAL ARTICLES THE WAY FORWARD NOTES REFERENCES 255 255 258 261 CHAPTER 14 COMPETITION POLICY EXPERIENCE WITH DOMESTIC COMPETITION POLICY AND LESSONS FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES THE NEED FOR DOMESTIC COMPETITION POLICY IN TODAY’S WORLD AN INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENT ON COMPETITION POLICY IN THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION THE WAY FORWARD NOTES REFERENCES 287 287 291 CHAPTER 15 TRANSPARENCY IN GOVERNMENT PROCUREMENT GOVERNMENT PROCUREMENT UNDER THE MULTILATERAL TRADE REGIME THE DEVELOPMENT DILEMMA A DIRECTION FOR THE FUTURE NOTES REFERENCES 297 297 299 300 301 301 vii 265 275 280 282 292 294 294 295 CONTENT S CHAPTER 16 TRADE FACILITATION POTENTIAL FOR INCREASED VULNERABILITY IMPLEMENTATION AND OPPORTUNITY COSTS A WAY FORWARD NOTE REFERENCES 303 303 305 306 306 306 CHAPTER 17 STANDARDS ISSUES FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES A WAY FORWARD NOTE REFERENCES 309 310 314 314 315 CHAPTER 18 TRADE AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY WHY DO ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS AND THE MEASURES USED TO ACHIEVE THEM MATTER TO HUMAN DEVELOPMENT? DO SOCIETIES FACE TRADE-OFFS BETWEEN HIGH ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS AND TRADE AND INVESTMENT FLOWS? WHAT PRINCIPLES SHOULD GUIDE THE MANAGEMENT OF TRADE-OFFS BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL AND TRADE POLICIES? WHICH PROCEDURES AND INSTITUTIONS SHOULD BE ENTRUSTED WITH MANAGING TRADE-OFFS BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL AND TRADE POLICIES? A WAY FORWARD REFERENCES 317 CHAPTER 19 STRENGTHENING CAPACITIES TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE AFTER DOHA NOTE REFERENCES 335 336 339 340 340 320 321 322 327 330 331 B OXES 1.1 1.2 1.3 2.1 2.2 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 6.1 6.2 6.3 ECONOMIC GROWTH AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT TRADE THEORY TRADE, POVERTY AND GROWTH IN THE LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE GLOBAL TRADE REGIME UNDERLYING FEATURES OF GATT 1947 AND WTO 1995 THE AGREEMENT ON AGRICULTURE: HISTORY, PROMISE AND WHERE WE ARE NOW AN EXAMPLE OF A TARIFF RATE QUOTA DOMESTIC SUPPORT MEASURES UNDER THE AGREEMENT ON AGRICULTURE EUROPEAN DUMPING OF MILK POWDER IN JAMAICA THE 2002 US FARM SECURITY AND RURAL INVESTMENT ACT (FARM BILL) EFFECTS OF AGRICULTURAL TRADE AGREEMENTS IN THE PHILIPPINES AND MEXICO MOVING TO NON-TRADITIONAL EXPORTS: THE EXPERIENCE IN CENTRAL AMERICA THE DEVELOPMENT BOX THE CASE OF COFFEE THE CASE OF COTTON THE CASE OF SHEA BUTTER viii 23 25 34 50 52 110 114 118 121 124 132 134 139 150 152 153 CONTENT S 7.1 7.2 ARE INDUSTRIAL TARIFFS REALLY HIGHER IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES? THE CASE OF LABOUR-INTENSIVE MANUFACTURING BANGLADESH’S LOST OPPORTUNITIES FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT DUE TO HIGH TARIFFS IN INDUSTRIAL COUNTRIES 13.4 13.5 13.6 13.7 DO REDUCTIONS IN INDUSTRIAL TARIFFS RESULT IN DEINDUSTRIALIZATION? TRADE TAXES AND DEVELOPMENT POLICY MILESTONES IN AGREEMENTS ON TEXTILES AND CLOTHING TRADE LEEWAY IN THE AGREEMENT ON TEXTILES AND CLOTHING WELFARE GAINS FROM LIBERALIZING TEXTILES AND CLOTHING TRADE: QUALIFICATIONS TO THE MODELS QUOTA RENTS: THE CASE OF HONG KONG, CHINA (SAR) WAYS TO GET AROUND THE SAFEGUARDS OF THE AGREEMENT ON TEXTILES AND CLOTHING EFFECTS OF PHASING OUT THE MULTIFIBRE ARRANGEMENT ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN BANGLADESH THE ORIGINS, INITIAL USE AND EVOLUTION OF ANTI-DUMPING ANTI-DUMPING ACTIONS AS TRADE HARASSMENT: THE CASE OF VIETNAMESE CATFISH SUBSIDIES—A CRUCIAL TOOL FOR DEVELOPMENT SMALL ECONOMIES, EXPORT SUBSIDIES AND COUNTERVAILING ACTIONS FISHING FOR SUBSIDIES TRIPS: A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE ON INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS BRAZIL’S EXPERIENCE WITH IMPLEMENTING TRIPS ILLUSTRATIVE SUI GENERIS SYSTEMS THE REVISED BANGUI AGREEMENT, 1999 THE HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS ON INVESTMENT COMPLAINTS ABOUT INDONESIA’S CAR PROGRAMME T WO EXAMPLES OF NAFTA’S CHAPTER 11 ON INVESTOR-STATE RELATIONSHIPS THE GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TRADE IN SERVICES: HISTORY AND WHERE WE ARE NOW OVERALL COVERAGE OF THE GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TRADE IN SERVICES AN EXAMPLE OF A GOVERNMENT SCHEDULE ON A MODE OF SERVICE: CHILE AND MODE 3 THE REQUEST-OFFER APPROACH AND THE FORMULA APPROACH WOMEN AND FINANCIAL LIBERALIZATION INTERNATIONAL MOVEMENT OF LABOUR: THEORY AND EMPIRICS SOME OF INDIA’S PROPOSALS ON REMOVING LIMITATIONS ON THE MOVEMENT 13.8 13.9 13.10 14.1 15.1 16.1 17.1 17.2 18.1 CONSTRUCTION: A SERVICE SECTOR OF INTEREST TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES SERVICES AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: THE ENERGY SECTOR SERVICES AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: THE ENVIRONMENT SECTOR COMPETITION POLICY IN THE INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT: A BRIEF HISTORY GOVERNMENT PROCUREMENT AND THE WORLD TRADE REGIME: A BRIEF HISTORY TRADE FACILITATION: A BRIEF HISTORY MULTILATERAL AGREEMENTS ON STANDARDS: A BRIEF HISTORY THE MEAT HORMONE DISPUTE ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY AND GATT/WTO: A HISTORY OF IMPLICIT POLICY-MAKING 7.3 7.4 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 9.1 9.2 10.1 10.2 10.3 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 12.1 12.2 12.3 13.1 13.2 13.3 OF NATURAL PERSONS ix 160 162 163 164 168 173 176 177 180 181 186 191 197 198 200 204 206 210 219 220 237 241 250 256 258 259 263 271 273 276 277 278 279 288 298 304 310 312 319 CONTENT S 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD E CONOMIC LIBERALIZATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT T HE SHRIMP - TURTLE DISPUTE R IO PRINCIPLES FOR MANAGING TRADE - OFFS BET WEEN TRADE 321 322 324 AND THE ENVIRONMENT 18.6 19.1 P ROPOSALS IN THE 1990 S ON ENVIRONMENT AND TRADE T ECHNICAL ASSISTANCE IN W ORLD T RADE O RGANIZATION 327 328 337 AGREEMENTS F IGURES 1.1 1.2 1.3 5.1 5.2 5.3 7.1 F ROM HUMAN DEVELOPMENT TO GROW TH — AND BACK LOW IMPORT TARIFFS ARE GOOD FOR GROW TH ? T HINK AGAIN TARIFFS DID NOT IMPEDE GROW TH IN I NDIA F OOD EXPORTS AS A SHARE OF FOOD IMPORTS IN THE LEAST DEVELOPED AND OTHER DEVELOPING COUNTRIES , 1971–99 S HARES OF WORLD EXPORTS OF GOODS AND SERVICES FROM THE LEAST DEVELOPED AND OTHER DEVELOPING COUNTRIES , 1980–99 F OOD IMPORTS AS A SHARE OF ALL MERCHANDISE IMPORTS IN THE LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES , BY COUNTRY, 1997–99 S IMPLE TARIFFS ON MANUFACTURED GOODS IN THREE GROUPS OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES 9.1 9.2 A NTI - DUMPING A NTI - DUMPING 1986–99 INITIATIONS , BY COUNTRY GROUP, 1995–99 26 29 31 127 129 130 159 190 INITIATIONS BY INDUSTRIAL AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES , 192 TABLES 1.1 4.1 5.1 8.1 8.2 9.1 13.1 35 T HE WASHINGTON C ONSENSUS WTO- MEDIATED DISPUTES BETWEEN DEVELOPING AND INDUSTRIAL COUNTRIES , 84 BY AGREEMENT CATEGORY, 1 J ANUARY 1995–9 S EPTEMBER 2002 115 E XAMPLES OF 1995 TARIFF QUOTA RATES 169 T EXTILE AND CLOTHING EXPORTS OF 13 LEADING EXPORTERS , 1965–96 P OST –U RUGUAY R OUND TARIFF RATES AND CONCESSIONS IN SELECTED COUNTRIES AND GROUPS 177 190 A NTI - DUMPING CASES FILED AGAINST TRANSITION ECONOMIES , 1995–99 260 A N EXAMPLE OF A GOVERNMENT SCHEDULE FOR ENGINEERING SERVICES A NNEX 2.1 TABLES E XCEPTIONS FROM WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION COMMITMENTS 58 FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES 2.2 11.1 11.2 S PECIAL PROVISIONS FOR THE LEAST DEVELOPED IN W ORLD T RADE O RGANIZATION AGREEMENTS M AIN PROVISIONS OF THE TRIPS A GREEMENT TRIPS AND TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE x COUNTRIES 59 224 225 P REFACE Trade has been an indispensable engine for economic growth across the world throughout human history. But while that growth has in many instances been translated into sustained poverty reduction, the connection is not automatic. Amidst the street riots of Seattle in 1999, the question of whether the international trading system as currently structured helps or hinders the progress of developing countries was called into question. Almost immediately, that meeting became a kind of Rorschach test for how different constituencies view globalisation. Supporters of open markets and free trade claimed progress was held back by the inaction of some governments and misunderstanding or obstruction by some civil society organisations. Opponents, pointing to the fact that 60 countries from all parts of the world got poorer over the last decade, declared that the combination of unfettered capitalism and rigged trade rules was in practice leaving developing countries further and further behind. They also criticized the double standards of some industrialized countries that preach free trade but do not practice it themselves. And with big business, civil society, labour, and rich and poor governments alike all noisily blaming each other for the failure to agree on a new trade round, the general public was left confused about the details but—as was clearly evidenced in a raft of opinion polls across both the developing and industrialized world— increasingly convinced that something was going wrong with the great globalisation experiment. Trade can, and must, be made to work as an engine of growth and indeed of human development. What is needed to enable this is a serious, systematic effort to apply the lessons of history, which show that, with very few exceptions, today’s rich countries in the past enjoyed many of the protections they now seek to deny developing countries, only dismantling them after growing wealthier and more powerful. It is also important to ensure that the multilateral trade regime is better aligned with broader objectives of human development: helping poor people everywhere gain the tools, opportunities and choices to build a better life for themselves, their families and their communities. This is the only way to reverse the current disaffection with globalisation. xi PREFACE With this goal firmly in mind, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the Rockefeller Brothers Fund and the Rockefeller Foundation commissioned the Trade and Sustainable Human Development Project in mid-2000 to help flesh out exactly what this might mean in practice. The Ford Foundation, Heinrich Böll Foundation and Wallace Global Fund joined this effort in subsequent months. And while this book is the product of that initiative, the process of preparing it has in many ways been as important as the final result. The Project was divided into five main phases. First was to commission papers by respected independent scholars and experts from academia and civil society. Second, to convene an advisory team of concerned and internationally respected experts to critically assess the background paper outlines and advise on overall project strategy. Third, to prepare the draft and final background papers. Fourth, to use the draft papers as inputs into a series of consultations with developing country governments and civil society organisations in the Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Arab States region in the lead-up to the World Trade Organization (WTO) Ministerial Conference in Doha in November 2001, to obtain their feedback and understand their concerns more fully. And last, to draw on all of these and other inputs to prepare and finalize this book. By engaging with a very wide range of experts across government, academia and civil society, the Project has provided a platform for a wide range of views and recommendations—ranging from issues of intellectual property to agricultural reform to capacity building to helping developing countries participate more effectively in trade negotiations—on how to make the multilateral trade regime work more effectively for poor people and for human development. As a result, it is important to stress that the recommendations in the book are not necessarily a reflection of the policy of its sponsors. While we hope and believe that many of the recommendations will have direct relevance for the work of the Project’s sponsors, the main aim of this book has been to provide a substantive basis for refocusing discussion and debate around the broad issue of how trade can best contribute to human development. Our hope is that this book will provide policymakers, practitioners, civil society groups and others engaged in trade issues with some concrete ideas on how to move forward. This is important because unless we can give developing countries the means and voice to participate as full partners in a more inclusive global trade system, the world has little prospect of meeting its shared agenda of the Millennium Development Goals. xii Team for the preparation of Making Global Trade Work for People Coordinator and lead author Kamal Malhotra Core research and writing team Chandrika Bahadur Selim Jahan Mümtaz Keklik Kamal Malhotra Principal consultants for background papers Nilüfer Çagatay ˘ Dani Rodrik Third World Network Contributors Özlem Altyok, ´ Susan Benjamin, Janine Berg, Murray Gibbs, Taisuke Ito, Abdelaziz Megzari, William Milberg, Bonapas Onguglo, Andreas Pfeil, Moeed Pirzada, Marina Ponti, Bharati Sadasivam, Swarnim Wagle, Jake Werksman Principal editor Bruce Ross-Larson [-2], (2) Lines: 21 t ——— 0.0pt Pg ——— Normal Pa PgEnds: TE [-2], (2) A CKNOWLEDGEMENTS The initial co-sponsors of the Trade and Sustainable Human Development Project and this book were the United Nations Development Programme, the Rockefeller Brothers Fund and the Rockefeller Foundation. The Ford Foundation, Heinrich Böll Foundation, and Wallace Global Fund joined the effort in subsequent months. The generous contributions of many other individuals and organizations—contributions that took the form of intense consultations and the preparation and sharing of policy research papers and other inputs have played an equally important role. EMINENT PERSONS GROUP The book has benefited enormously from the overall guidance of a group of eminent experts in global economic policies, governance, trade and human development. The group comprised: Gerald Helleiner, Professor, Department of Economics and Distinguished Research Fellow, Munk Centre for International Studies, University of Toronto; Noeleen Heyzer, Executive Director, United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM); Vice-Minister Yong-Tu Long, Ministry of Trade and Economic Cooperation, People’s Republic of China; Ambassador Ali Said Mchumo, Deputy Secretary General, East African Community, and ambassador and permanent representative of the United Republic of Tanzania to the UN and other offices in Geneva and Vienna and WTO Ambassador till recently, and chair of the WTO General Council between February 1999 and February 2000; Deepak Nayyar, ViceChancellor, University of Delhi; and Jose Antonio Ocampo, Executive Secretary, UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC). PEER REVIEW GROUP The book has also benefited greatly from intellectual advice and guidance from a peer review group of experts on trade, governance and human development. This group comprised: Yilmaz Akyüz, Georges ...
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