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Running head: 1Pernicious AnemiaAnemia is a loss or reduction of hemoglobin or erythrocytes in the blood. It can be caused for many different reasons to include impaired erythrocyte production, blood loss, increased destruction of erythrocytes, or a combination of all (Huether & McCance, 2017). Pernicious anemia is an abnormal erythrocyte nuclear maturation. It results from an autoimmune response. The effect is a loss of vitamin B12 (Hammer & McPhee, 2014). Rapid proliferating cells are mostly affected and are mainly in the bone marrow and GI tract. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common types of anemia. It can develop due to dietary deficiencies, loss of iron due to blood loss in the GI tract and genitourinary tract. Menstruating women are most susceptible to this type of anemia (Hammer & McPhee, 2014). Symptoms of anemia are shortness of breath, fatigue, lethargy, muscle weakness, depression, impaired judgement, and paranesthesia in the extremities (Gilbert, 2017).