SOCI 362 - Sociology of Work.docx - SOCI 362 \u2013 Sociology of Work Friday January 5 2018 Chapter 1 Historical Perspectives on Work(1700-1950\u2019s What is

SOCI 362 - Sociology of Work.docx - SOCI 362 u2013...

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SOCI 362 – Sociology of Work Friday January 5, 2018 Chapter 1: Historical Perspectives on Work (1700-1950’s) What is “work”? - “…an activity that provides a socially valued product or service” - Includes o Paid and unpaid work (Caring, volunteering) o “Formal” (conventional) and “informal” (shadow economy) economy Informal – i.e. may not be legal Ex. Shoplifting, drug dealing, bartering Find these jobs through word of mouth (especially if it’s illegal) - Shaped by industrialization and - Constantly changing (Economy always changing, therefore types of jobs are always changing) o Schumpeter – “creative destruction” The patten of the economy, places of work, losing power/salience, actual physical building where things are made (factory) is bulldozed down It is absolutely necessary for people involved in the economy to keep up with patterns of change - Early 1900s Canada o Farming, large families, high immigration, household economies and start of “paid work” - Present-Day Canada o Paid employment the norm, often in large, bureaucratic organizations
o “Service” jobs outnumber farming, manufacturing o Two-thirds of households are “dual-earner” It’s now impossible for a family to survive on a single salary Work in European Feudal Society - Subsistence agriculture o Labour-intensive, with basic technology o Hard physical labour - High social inequality o Small aristocracy and merchant class in cities o Rural landowning class and peasantry - Poor living conditions for many - Little economic or social change - Individual rights of little account Origins of Industrial Capitalism Polanyi (1944) “The Great Transformation) Industrial capitalism transforms Western societies - Wage labour as dominant form of “work” - New forms of large-scale, centralized production o Could produce large number of products in less time - Slow and steady decline in agriculture - Rapid urban growth - Shifts in norms and values – individual rights, “clock time” o Number of political/social people demanding individual human rights for everyone o Development of “clock time” – regulating what you do in a day/night based on a clock Before clock time, people followed nature as a “clock” People used to get everything done during daylight hours (laid back way of living) Limits the amount of time they had 2
Difficult to run a capitalist society without clock-time. Needs to be very rigid and organized - Rise of “scientific management” o Scientific management is referred to as increasingly monitored and controlled work processes that began in factories. These factories became even more efficient o Work itself was treated as a scientific experiment o Jobs were split up into single tasks o Everything is quantified/itemized o People identify wasted time/movement and then put together an assembly line to create efficiency Canada’s Industrialization - “Late” industrialized (mid-1800s) - “Staples economy” o Resource-rich colony, e.g., fur, timber, fisheries -

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