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sociologyexam#1.docx - Chapter 1-The Sociological...

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Chapter 1-The Sociological Perspective Sociology: Sociology is the scientific study of society and human behavior. Sociologists use scientific research methods in order to validate their findings. Karl Marx: Philosopher, Economist, Revolutionary, Sociologist. In the middle of political, social, and industrial upheaval. The rise of capitalism was the cause of conflict. Marx believed under capitalism many forms of exploitation and domination were used. Class Conflict False Consciousness Bourgeoisie the owners of production Proletariat the workers Max Weber: Rationality a process that replaced traditional thinking with advancement in efficiency, self-control, and effectiveness. Value Free. The Protestant Ethic and The Spirit of Capitalism. W.E.B. Du Bois: First African American to receive a Ph.D. from Harvard. Civil Rights Activist. Wrote over 4,000 essays. 1963 moved to Ghana. Conflict theory- The conflict theory, suggested by Karl Marx, claims society is in a state of perpetual conflict because of competition for limited resources. It holds that social order is maintained by domination and power, rather than consensus and conformity. Herbert Spencer: British philosopher and sociologist who was intellectually active during the Victorian period. He was known for his contributions to evolutionary theory and for applying it outside of biology, to the fields of philosophy, psychology, and within sociology. In this work, he coined the term "survival of the fittest." In addition, he helped develop the functionalist perspective, one of the major theoretical frameworks in sociology.
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