Thesis_Literature_Review_-_Draft.docx - Literature Review Autism Spectrum Disorder(ASD is one of three major subcategories of pervasive developmental

Thesis_Literature_Review_-_Draft.docx - Literature Review...

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Literature Review Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is one of three major subcategories of pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) (APA, 2013). Autism and its related disorders encompass the Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Autism Spectrum Disorders are characterized by varying levels of deficiencies in social behavior, communication, ritualistic behavior and stereotypic behaviours (Eikeseth, 2009; Fabio, Giannatiempo, Antonietti, & Budden, 2009; Matson & Boisjoli, 2007; Matson & Mahan, 2009; Matson & Neal, 2009; Matson, Nebel-Schwalm, & Matson, 2007; Matson & Wilkins, 2007, 2009). Autism Spectrum Disorders are believed to be present at birth and can be diagnosed as early as 18 months (Kuban, O’Shea, Allred, Tager- Flusberg, Goldstein, & Leviton, 2009; Matson & Mahan, 2009; Watson, Baranek, & DiLavore, 2003). Difficulty in communication involves both skills in the verbal and non-verbal domain including difficulty in expression of emotions. ASD can be complemented by a range of other conditions such as cognitive difficulties and speech and language disorders. The underdeveloped social aspect of people with ASD means that “emphatic gestures, informative facial expressions, and vocal modulation lack essential meaning for them.” (Bregman, 2005, 7). In addition, people with ASD generally communicate in order to “express needs, desires, and preferences” but not to “convey sincere interest in others, or to share experiences, excitement, or feelings.” (Bregman, 2005, 7). At times, parents would mistake the signs and symptoms thinking that the child is not well or is upset and simply not communicating and wait till the symptoms are full-fledged. An early diagnosis can slow down the process of impairments, although it cannot stop it completely and neither is there any specific cure (Kerkar, 2017).
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Moreover, children with autism easily become stressed and nervous which can cause a lack of socialization with others. Behavior difficulties are natural in children, nonetheless Neitzel (2010) found that people with autism are particularly at a higher risk to develop at least one behavior that challenges that could impede their development and learning process such as repetitive and stereotypical behaviors and disruptive behaviors. As a child with autism is not able to handle the ways in which socialization usually take place, they are also not able to learn the desired behaviors. In children with autism Park, Yelland, Taffe, and Gray (2012) define poor communication skills as one of the important elements that can lead to behavioral problems, avoiding unwanted activities, and gaining social attention. Emotional behavior of children with autism can have long-term effects in terms of quality of life and daily functioning (Samson, Hardan, Podell, Phillips, & Gross, 2012). Mazefsky, Borue, Day, and Minshew (2014) compared children with ASD with typically developing children. They showed that children without autism use more adaptive coping strategies such as planning and seeking of emotional support when compared to children with autism. However, there is still a
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