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Unformatted text preview: Entireeducation 03084293988 Page 1 CSS Gender Studies (Created and Designed by Entireeducation.com) Contact Us:03084293988 Entireeducation 03084293988 Page 2 About Entireeducation.com You are welcome for visiting our website which is fully composed of educational systems including different countries university admissions which consist much essential for admitting in University. Some university not only provides information but also ask that you can take admission on-line so, we also provide on-line admission. We take daily update to each and every university or other educational institute. We are now providing now daily new university admission from India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. Our first objective to give first South Asian universities then We will provide the international, worldwide universities. Entireeducation Team incorporates with professional and create a new CSS notes for aspirants. CSS Notes are fully comprises in accordance with new syllabus updated in 2016. Our professional stay and layout notes up to mark. Student will get an extensive hub of knowledge regarding Gender Studies from these notes. The best thing of Entireeducation notes reflects only one handbook for the students. Through which a student can easily extract and through out the entire concepts. Fully updated notes assist student to pulls through life career in a gleaming way with collaboration of Entireeducation notes. Thanks Regards, Entireeducation.com Table of Content I. Introduction to Gender Studies Introduction to Gender Studies………………………………………………………………....7 Difference between Gender and Women Studies………………………………………..…11 Multi-disciplinary nature of Gender Studies………………………………………………....13 Autonomy vs. Integration Debate in Gender Studies………………………………..……..15 Status of Gender Studies in Pakistan………………………………………………………..17 Entireeducation 03084293988 Page 3 II. Social Construction of Gender……………………………………………………………………..18 Historicizing Constructionism……………………………………………………………..…..19 Problematizing the category of “Sex”: Queer Theory……………………………..………..21 Is “Sex” socially determined, too? ……………………………………………………………23 Masculinities and Feminism…………………………………………………………………..25 Nature versus Culture: A Debate in Gender Development………………………………..26 III. Feminist Theories and Practice What is Feminism……………………………………………………………………………...31 Liberal Feminism…………………………………………………………………………..…..34 Radical Feminism……………………………………………………………………………..35 Marxist/Socialist Feminism………………………………………………………………..36-42 Psychoanalytical Feminism………………………………………………………………....45 Men’s Feminism………………………………………………………………………….…..46 Postmodern Feminism…………………………………………………………………..…..50 IV. Feminist Movements……………………………………………………………………………….52 Feminist Movements in the West, First Wave, Second Wave and Third Wave Feminism, United Nation Conferences on Women, Feminist Movements in Pakistan. V. Gender and Development……………………………………………………………………..…91 Colonial and Capitalistic Perspectives of Gender………………………………………....93 Gender Analysis of Development Theories; Modernization Theory, World System Theory, Dependency Theory, Structural Functionalism. ………………………………....94 Gender Approaches to Development: Women in Development (WID), Women and Development (WAD), Gender and Development (GAD); Gender Critique of Structural Adjustment Policies (SAPs). …………………………………………………...109 Globalization and Gender VI. Status of Women in Pakistan…………………………………………………………………...130 Entireeducation 03084293988 Page 4 Status of Women’s health in Pakistan………………………………………………….…..133 Status of Women in Education…………………………………………………………..…..135 Women and Employment……………………………………………………………..……..145 Women and Law…………………………………………………………………………….149 VII. Gender and Governance Defining Governance………………………………………………………………………..155 Suffragist Movement…………………………………………………………….…………..159 Gender Issues in Women as Voters……………………………………….….…………..160 Gender Issues in Women as Candidates………………………………..….…….……...162 Gender Issues in Women as Representatives…………………………….…..………...163 Impact of Political Quota in Pakistan………………………………….…………………..164 VIII. Gender Based Violence………………………………………………………………...166 Defining Gender Based Violence………………………………………………….….167 Theories of Violence against Women…………….. Structural and Direct Forms of Violence…………………………………..………..186 Strategies to Eliminate Violence against Women…………………………………..187 IX. Case Studies of: Mukhtaran Mai…………………………………………………………………………...191 Mallala Yousaf Zai………………………………………………………………….…..192 Shermin Ubaid Chinoy………………………………………………………..………..196 Entireeducation 03084293988 Page 5 Introduction to Gender Studies Gender studies is a field for interdisciplinary study devoted to gender identity and gendered representation as central categories of analysis. This field includes women's studies (concerning women, feminism, gender, and politics), men's studies and LGBT studies. Sometimes, gender studies is offered together with study of sexuality. These disciplines study gender and sexuality in the fields of literature, language, geography, history, political science, sociology, anthropology, cinema, media studies, human development, law, and medicine.[3] It also analyzes how race, ethnicity, location, class, nationality, and disability intersect with the categories of gender and sexuality. Regarding gender, Simone de Beauvoir said: "One is not born a woman, one becomes one." This view proposes that in gender studies, the term "gender" should be used to refer to the social and cultural constructions of masculinities and femininities and not to the state of being male or female in its entirety.[7] However, this view is not held by all gender theorists. Beauvoir's is a view that many sociologists support (see Sociology of gender), though there are many other contributors to the field of gender studies with different backgrounds and opposing views, such as psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan and feminists such as Judith Butler. Gender is pertinent to many disciplines, such as literary theory, drama studies, film theory, performance theory, contemporary art history, anthropology, sociology, sociolinguistics and psychology. However, these disciplines sometimes differ in their approaches to how and why gender is studied. For instance in anthropology, sociology and psychology, gender is often studied as a practice, whereas in cultural studies representations of gender are more often examined. In politics, gender can be viewed as a foundational discourse that political actors employ in order to position themselves on a variety of issues.[8] Gender studies is also a discipline in itself, incorporating methods and approaches from a wide range of disciplines.[9] Each field came to regard "gender" as a practice, sometimes referred to as something that is performative.[10] Feminist theory of psychoanalysis, articulated mainly by Julia Kristeva[11] (the "semiotic" and "abjection") and Bracha Ettinger[12] (the feminine-prematernal-maternal matrixial Eros of borderlinking and com-passion,[13] "matrixial trans-subjectivity" and the "primal motherphantasies"), and informed both by Freud, Lacan and the object relations theory, is very influential in gender studies. Gender can also be broken into three categories, gender identity, gender expression, and biological sex, as Sam Killermann explains in his Ted X Talk at the University of Chicago.[15] Entireeducation 03084293988 Page 6 These three categories are another way of breaking down gender into the different social, biological, and cultural constructions. These constructions focus on how femininity and masculinity are fluid entities and how their meaning is able to fluctuate depending on the various constraints surrounding them. The development of gender theory: The history of gender studies looks at the different perspectives of gender. This discipline examines the ways in which historical, cultural, and social events shape the role of gender in different societies. The field of gender studies, while focusing on the differences between men and women, also looks at sexual differences and less binary definitions of gender categorization. After the revolution of the universal suffrage of the twentieth century and the women's liberation movement of the 1960 and 1970s promoted a revision from the feminists to "actively interrogate" the usual and accepted versions of history as it was known at the time. It was the goal of many feminist scholars to question original assumptions regarding women’s and men’s attributes, to actually measure them, and to report observed differences between women and men.[49] Initially, these programs were essentially feminist, designed to recognize contributions made by women as well as by men. Soon, men began to look at masculinity the same way that women were looking at femininity, and developed an area of study called "men’s studies." [50] It was not until the late 1980s and 1990s that scholars recognized a need for study in the field of sexuality. This was due to the increasing interest in lesbian and gay rights, and scholars found that most individuals will associate sexuality and gender together, rather than as separate entities. A study of drivers' propensity to use traffic information system showed that income and car ownership play an important role in travel behavior for men, while education and occupation were identified significant in the women's behavior.[52] Although doctoral programs for women's studies have existed since 1990, the first doctoral program for a potential PhD in gender studies in the United States was approved in November 2005.[53] In 2015 at Kabul University the first master's degree course in gender and women’s studies in Afghanistan began Women's studies Women's studies is an interdisciplinary academic field devoted to topics concerning women, feminism, gender, and politics. It often includes feminist theory, women's history (e.g. a history of women's suffrage) and social history, women's fiction, women's health, feminist psychoanalysis and the feminist and gender studies-influenced practice of most of the humanities and social sciences. Men's studies Entireeducation 03084293988 Page 7 Men's studies is an interdisciplinary academic field devoted to topics concerning men, masculism, gender, and politics. It often includes feminist theory, men's history and social history, men's fiction, men's health, feminist psychoanalysis and the feminist and gender studies-influenced practice of most of the humanities and social sciences. Timothy Laurie and Anna Hickey-Moody suggest that there 'have always been dangers present in the institutionalisation of "masculinity studies" as a semi-gated community', and note that 'a certain triumphalism vis-à-vis feminist philosophy haunts much masculinities research'.[55] Gender in East Asia Certain issues associated with gender in Eastern Asia and the Pacific Region are more complex and depend on location and context. For example, in China, Vietnam, Thailand, Philippines and Indonesia, a heavy importance of what defines a woman comes from the workforce. In these countries, "gender related challenges tend to be related to economic empowerment, employment, and workplace issues, for example related to informal sector workers, feminization of migration flows, work place conditions, and long term social security."[56] However, in countries who are less economically stable, such as Papua New Guinea, Timor Leste, Laos, Cambodia, and some provinces in more remote locations, "women tend to bear the cost of social and domestic conflicts and natural disasters." One issue that remains consistent throughout all provinces in different stages of development is women having a weak voice when it comes to decision-making. One of the reasons for this is the "growing trend to decentralization [which] has moved decision-making down to levels at which women’s voice is often weakest and where even the women’s civil society movement, which has been a powerful advocate at national level, struggles to organize and be heard." East Asia Pacific’s approach to help mainstream these issues of gender relies on a three-pillar method [1]. Pillar one is partnering with middle-income countries and emerging middle-income countries to sustain and share gains in growth and prosperity. Pillar two supports the developmental underpinnings for peace, renewed growth and poverty reduction in the poorest and most fragile areas. The final pillar provides a stage for knowledge management, exchange and dissemination on gender responsive development within the region to begin. These programs have already been established, and successful in, Vietnam, Thailand, China, as well as the Philippines, and efforts are starting to be made in Laos, Papua New Guinea, and Timor Leste as well. These pillars speak to the importance of showcasing gender studies.[56] Judith Butler The concept of gender performativity is at the core of philosopher and gender theorist Judith Butler's work, notably in Gender Trouble. In Butler’s terms the performance of gender, sex, and sexuality is about power in society.[10][57] She locates the construction of the "gendered, sexed, desiring subject" in "regulative discourses". A part of Butler's argument concerns the role Entireeducation 03084293988 Page 8 of sex in the construction of "natural" or coherent gender and sexuality. In her account, gender and heterosexuality are constructed as natural because the opposition of the male and female sexes is perceived as natural in the social imaginary. Difference between Gender and Women Studies Gender Study: Gender study is an inter-disciplinary field that concentrates on the new scholarships in men’s and women’s studies. It addresses the struggle for gender equality in politics, education, the family, the labour force, in literature, and the media are key topics; and in many courses this involves cross-cultural studies of gender relations. Women study: Women studies is an offshoot of second wave feminism (The term second-wave feminism refers mostly to the radical feminism of the women's liberation movement of the late 1960s and early 1970s). Women’s studies addresses not only the need for a fuller understanding of women in society but also for new criteria and methods of assessing the status of women. The Gender studies are the new subject to academics across the world because the world and elements of the culture tend to achieve the realistic approach towards the exploration of ills in society. The basic motive behind the exploration of ill is to confront the challenges of human life. The subject is not ancient one and oppositely it is new to the society. The society that is showing some endorsements towards the reality approach so that gender differentiation can come forward as truth. (Cotterill, 1992) Gender studies are the paradigm shift in academics and this shift is being obtained through the consistent behavior of women in women struggle against freedom. Realistically speaking, the subject matter’ debate does not end till date because of different viewpoints of the society about the gender studies at the same platform. It is known fact that the women studies are always considered the major elements related to the women only. Those elements that are highly considerable in the way and should be done with the immediate improvement in the timeline at women’s perspective. The women issue is the one of the main elements among those that considered the women at first place in society and should be molded in the sense that may endorse the way of society towards the women. The women issues may be same as the society said and may be highly integrated as the Hillary Clinton thinks. The women’ issues may be same as the urban women said during her daily life and may be same as the women issues buzzed up by the rural’ living life. The main element in which the women can think, ponder and initiates the discourse analysis is being understandable and discussed in the women studies in this society. (Cotterill, 1992) The women issues are not a static form in which the women can thinks and responds in the static form, it is the flexible paradigm that shows that how the women confronts the challenges in her life. The challenges that issues of friendship, he challenges of vulnerability in the society and the challenges that are confronted by the women against the power distribution in the same society. Entireeducation 03084293988 Page 9 The challenges are itself creating various issues in the women’ life and women can think that people of society are still unaware the methods that show that how these issues can be resolved. The women researchers and the women responded are the two ways to think about the issues of the same community in which the both exist with almost the same mindset but in a different way. Ironically, the women study endorsed the same mindset at different levels so that the community show some integration at large scale. (Cotterill, 1992) The women researchers are doing well under the way that is highly considerable but constitutes less power than the women responded in an introspective way. The community sets a mindset that the women issues are the core purpose of both platforms so that the issues could meet the pragmatic strategies at the vast range. The power is unequally divided between the power responded and power researchers in the manner that is very useful in the manner. The women issues can’t meet the solutions in any case because the society acts differently. The Gender studies is entirely a different concept and the conceptual framework of gender needs the ways in which the respondent behaves with the researchers but in both men and women’ perspective. (Cotterill, 1992) The gender’ studies are always considered the issues at the front desk in which the both male and female are considerable for the discourse analysis. The women studies considered the women history and Gender studies considered the men’ role in the women history. The women studies initiate the analysis at women’ literature and gender studies draw attention towards the role of men in articulation and even creating it. In the end, one can say that the women studies pondered upon the women’ studies, history of women at this universe and women struggle for freedom so that the issues could meet the debate desk as soon as possible. The gender studies are the paradigm shift that shows that how the studies of men and women or interrelated activities during discourse analysis. Multi-disciplinary nature of Gender Studies: Gender Studies is the multidisciplinary, scientific, and critical study of how assumptions and expectations about gender and biological sex influence cultural, social, and political ideas about women and men. The Gender Studies minor is open to all students and, due to its multidisciplinary nature, is suitable for students with a wide variety of majors, including health sciences, business, education, social and natural sciences, humanities and the arts. The gender studies as the name gives taste of the thematic meaning in meaningful manner to ponder that how the studies of gender in this consistent widening population endorse the way that is highly centralized with the studies of both sexes currently in this universe. When the gender studies decided to do the relative measures with the immediate study as the research paradigm in which the studies in this manner is very descriptive it arises as the tool to make assumptions and expectation. This analysis toll provides the way through the further research is being carried out with the effective decision making. The decision making is not so easy because the gender studies is at stake. The assumption that are providing the glaring way to make assumption about the gender at first level and influence of sex difference at other. The gender studies can not only consider the cultural difference in further way but also two other aspects that are exactly deals with the...
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