Modern Architecture Early Modernism Art Nouveau Expressionism The European Mainstream The Chicago School Louis Sullivan Early Frank Lloyd Wright The Deutshe Werkbund (German Arts & Industry)
Modern Architecture The Chicago School Although the tall building utilized expensive land more economically, the skyscraper originated in the spacious Midwest – not in New York. Chicago had become the capital of the Midwest and the key city along the new east- west commercial axis of New York and San Francisco. The great Chicago fire of 1871 destroyed large areas of the city and provided great opportunities for many architects to rebuild the city. Chicago was full of talented architects like Louis Sullivan and Daniel Burnham willing and able to participate in the building campaign. Buildings up to 16-stories tall where built at a feverish pace between 1889 and the turn of the Century. Great heights where achieved through the use of steel framing systems making masonry bearings walls obsolete. The invention of the ‘curtain wall’ allowed the outer skin of the building to be non- structural - thus lighter and allowed greater fenestration.
Monadnock Building - Chicago, IL (1889 - 1891) architects: Burnham & Root Modern Architecture (The Chicago School) Known as the world’s first skyscraper The bay windows serve as space-extending, rhythmic accents. The client demanded an extremely simplified appearance. Burnham agrees – felt city structures did not appeal to most people hurrying by and to lavish upon them profusion of delicate ornament is useless. To convey stability & strength, Root gave his building a flared base and parapet suggesting the lines of an Egyptian pylon and the total absence of ornamentation. The tallest commercial building in the world with masonry load-bearing walls (6 feet thick at the base!)
Reliance Building - Chicago, IL (1894 - 95) architect: Daniel Burnham Modern Architecture (The Chicago School) In this 14-story building, the aesthetic of the steel skeleton was completely expressed with large windows extending between the steel piers, which were sheathed in terra cotta. It was one of the first buildings to employ a steel- framed curtain wall technique on the façade in which non load-bearing walls were ‘hung’ (or built on a series of shelves) story by story on fireproofed iron frame. The top ten stories were erected in only 15 days! Here, the ‘Chicago’ window is introduced – central fixed panes, flaked by double-hung sashes. The Reliance Building façade not only expresses the layered character of the steel frame and its lightness, but also exposes its aesthetic potential and gives it an almost Gothic quality.
Marquette Building - Chicago, IL (1893 - 94) architects: Holabird & Roche Modern Architecture (The Chicago School) The facade clearly reveals its underlying steel framed structure-- with broad windows set in a framework of narrow piers and spandrels.
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 54 pages?