February 28 notes

February 28 notes - Resistance and Liberation: Overthrowing...

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Resistance and Liberation: Overthrowing the Apartheid Regime Wed, February 28 I. The Liberal Challenge -already in the first 10-15 years of 20 th century, there is a resistance to British colonialism, most important is the ANC · African National Congress (ANC, 1912) -founders were very influenced by Ghandi and the Indian model -takes Ghandi’s methods of non-violence and INC model to form their own, even today there are some similarities to post-aparte -until Nationalist victory, the ANC was made up of middle-class intellectuals educated in Europe or America -class liberalism, race didn’t matter- the majority are from the educated black middle class African National Congress Flag Soweto Riots, 1976 Mandela and de Klerk
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-took the que from the suffrage movements in Great Britain and the US, gradually eliminating the color bar (evolutionary strategy) -lots of speeches, avoid a radical revolutionary policy- expel the president for flirting with communism (some thought it would be better for emancipation) -ANC was more a movement of intellectuals than a mass movement, became a problem because it wasn’t gaining traction by mid-30’s -1940’s = revival during war, formed trade unions (occasional strikes), used this activity to recruit more black workers -mass migration during the war from farming homelands to townships in cities, cross-tribal solidarities merged (ANC takes advantage of this) -younger members (Nelson Mandela) become somewhat more militant II. Move to Militancy (1940’s) -although still moderate, wants to become more assertive -1948, when nationalist party comes to power, Congress Youth League takes over the ANC, emergence of a generational divid, old guard who developed the movement and young blood (more assertive policy against apartheid) -ANC fails but manages to gain a mass following, began a new era of working with other racial constituaences (Indian population) · A New Generation: Nelson Mandela (b. 1918) Freedom Charter (1955) -highly liberal document, systematically opposes all elements of Grand Apartheid, calls for full democratic rights, Nationalist Party was able
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This note was uploaded on 03/30/2008 for the course HIST 140 taught by Professor Reid during the Spring '08 term at UNC.

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February 28 notes - Resistance and Liberation: Overthrowing...

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