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April 25 notes

April 25 notes - The Grand Experiment Iraq the United...

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The Grand Experiment: Iraq, the United States, and the Iraq War, 1990-2006 April 25, 2007 1) How did Iraq become an enemy of the United States after 1990? 2) What was the nature of American policy toward Iraq from 1990 to 2001? 3) What is neo-conservatism?  How has it shaped American foreign policy since 9/11? 4) Why did the United States invade Iraq?  What went wrong since the invasion? I.  The First Gulf War:  Origins, Course, and Aftermath -built up its military, Hussein wanted to be the ominent power in the Persian gulf The End of the Iran-Iraq War, 1988 Saddam Hussein’s Ambitions in the Gulf Region The Invasion of Kuwait and the American Response o Hussein claims that Kuwait was traditionally an Iraqi province o Also claims that Kuwait was stealing Iraqi oil o August 1990; army goes into Kuwait and annexes it o By 91, it was developing it’s chemical, biological and nuclear weaponry o 1981 (he had built a nuclear reactor, but bombed by Israelis) Desert Storm:  Why not go to Baghdad? o US sends troops to protect Saudi Arabia then builds an international  coalition in the UN (passes UN resolution) o Clear defeat for Hussein, he was wrecking the Iraqi economy as a result of  his foreign policy, but remains in power and re-asserts his power
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o Why didn’t Bush I allow Hussein to remain in power? MISTAKE! (his  argument that he didn’t want to occupy Iraq and own it and be responsible  for it, believed that he wanted to maintain the balance of power in the  region—realist policy! And a limited international mandate) The Kurdish and Shia Uprisings, 1991 o US encouraged revolt, Hussein deploys forces and crushes both uprises o Both Kurds and Shias felt abandoned but US didn’t want to get involved in  a civil war o Thought that it was immoral, though that Hussein should be dealt with, US  instructed a policy of containment Iraq as a "Sanctions Regime," 1991-2003 o Make sure that Hussein isn’t developing weapons of mass destruction o 1998, operation desert fox: bombing for three days, eliminated WMD  capacity for Hussein US Containment of Iraq, 1991-2003 o Allied Military Intervention:  1993, 1998, and the " No Fly-Zone " (2002) o Air bases in Turkey, no fly zone in North and South to protect both the  Kurd and the Shia populations (establish their own autonomy and  government cut off from Bagdad) -affected the population, exploited the UN grant to sell oil and get medicine and food  (Hussein pocketed most of the money) -thought that the only way to end the sanctions was to overthrow the regime -thorought the 1990’s the US developed a bombing campaign: 2002 as US geared up  for war, word went out to pilots to step up the bombing campaign (if Iraqis were to blink,  bomb them)
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