notes for bio - NATURE OF MATTER 1 Atom a basic unit of...

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NATURE OF MATTER 1. Atom a. basic unit of matter b. nucleus: central area which contains 1. protons- positive 2. neutrons- neutral 2. electron cloud: surrounds nucleus a. (-) charged particles orbit the nucleus b. electrons are in constant motion c. electrons determine bonding between elements, specifically the electrons in the outermost energy level (orbit) 3. elements: a. pure substance made of only one type of atoms b. represented by chemical symbols c. periodic table lists all elements 1. arranged by increasing atomic mass 2. elements in the same column share characteristics 3. ex: noble gasses: odorless colorless stable (ex. neon) 4. each square includes atomic number- number of protons symbol- abbreviation atomic mass- number of protons + number of neutrons 5. isotopes
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a. atoms of the same element that have different number of neutrons but contains the same number of protons b. different mass numbers c. and example is: carbon-14 1. this is a radioactive isotope 2. used for determining age of fossils PROPERTIES OF WATER 1. polarity 2. hydrogen bonding a. water forms multiple hydrogen bonds b. results in i. cohesion- water molecules stick to each other ii. adhesion- water molecules sticking to other surfaces 3. capillary action A. water moves against gravity through narrow tubes. B. ex. trees use it to bring h2o to tops of trees. 4. solutions and suspensions A. solution: evenly distributed components of a solution (ex. salt water) B. suspension: mixture of water and non-dissolved materials (ex. blood) . acid bases and pH A. water molecules react to form ions ( charged particles) in solution B. form either H+ or OH- ions h2o= h+ + OH- C. ph scales indicates the concentration of H+ ions in solution (ranges from 0-14) D. acid forms H+ ions in solution ( orange juice, lemon) E. base form OH- ions solution ( milk, bleach) F. buffers: weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids/bases to prevent sudden changes PH G. weak base- milk of magnesia pepto bismo 1. carbon compounds a. molecromoles
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i. most cellular materials are made of the giant molecules.
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