Study Guide Cold War, the 1960s, Civil Rights Movement Multiple Choice ● Containment ○ The United States and its allies were working to prevent the expansion of the Soviet Union. The doctrine emerged after 1946 events in Europe. ○ Stalin was trying to win control over the vital seas in the Mediterranean through Turkey. In Greece, communist forces were threatening the post- war government. ○ Truman drew ideas from George F Kennan, who believed we should be patient yet firm when containing Russia. ● Marshall Plan ○ Secretary George C. Marshall proposed a plan to provide economic support to all European Nations (including the Soviet nation) ○ Russia and its Eastern satellites rejected the plan; 16 European nations eagerly accepted the plan ○ The domestic dispute in the U.S disappeared after a communist coup d'etat in Czechoslovakia ○ Channeled over $12 billion in aid over the next 3 years ○ By the end of 1950, industrial production in Europe grew 64% ● McCarthyism ○ Joseph McCarthy was a Republican Senator from Wisconsin. He claimed to know of 205 communists working in the State Department. ○ He conducted highly publicized investigations of subversion in the government. ○ McCarthy never produced solid evidence of communist subversion. He stated that Democrats were responsible for “20 years of treason.” ○ Fear of communism, animosity towards the country’s “eastern establishment,” frustration at partisan ambitions. ● The Korean War ○ Korea became divided between the North and South. The United States devoted themselves to protecting the southern part of Korea; the Soviets protected the north. ○ The Russians left in 1949 leaving behind a strong communist regime + soviet army ○ The Americans left a few months later ○ North Korea invaded the south in 1950, and Truman was quick to respond. On June 27, the president appealed to the United Nations to intervene. ○ Truman appointed General MacArthur to control the overwhelming American UN forces.
Study Guide ○ MacArthur pushed the North Koreans across the 38th parallel. He wanted a “unified, independent and democratic Korea.” ○ When the Americans took over Pyongyang, the Chinese intervened. The Chinese forces pushed Americans across the 38th parallel once again. MacArthur wanted to directly intervene in China but after the distribution of the Martin letter, Truman fired him. ● Levittown ○ By 1960, a third of the nation's population was living in suburbs. ○ William Levitt used mass production techniques to construct a large housing development. ○ The first “Levittown” was in Long Island, New York. ○ Consisted of several thousand cape-cod style houses, with identical interiors. ○ Sold for under $10,000 and helped to meet the demand for housing.