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1Running head: THE SQUARE OF OPPOSITIONThe Square of OppositionCourtney StockinWest Coast University
THE SQUARE OF OPPOSITION 2The Square of OppositionDeveloped by Aristotle in the fourth century B.C.E, categorical logic, also known as Aristotelian or traditional logic, is used to clarify and analyze deductive arguments. This form of logic is used to break down claims and put them in categories and translate them into simpler standard-form claims. While there are many ways to categorized claims, there are four main types of sentences that can be translated into statements called A, E, I, O claims. From there these standard-form claims can be inputted into the square of opposition to help find their corresponding claim. Categorical logic is based on the relations of inclusion and exclusion among four basic kinds of claims. There are many ways to categorize claims but there are four main standard-form types of claims. these four types of claims are referred to as the universal affirmative (A) statement, the universal negative (E) statement, the particular affirmative (I) statement, and lastlythe particular negative (O) statement. Statements in the A category are in the form of “All ___ are ___.” For E statements the claim looks like “No ___ are ___.” When putting I statements intoa category, their claims follow the form “Some ___ are ___.” Lastly, statements in the O categoryare in the form of “Some ___ are not ___.” Words that go inside of the blank spaces are called terms, and these terms can only be nouns or noun phrases. In the first blank would be the subject term and the predicate term goes in the second blank. These terms are often referred to as classes