Chapter3-LearningGuide.pdf - Chapter 3 u2013 Digestion...

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Chapter 3 Digestion, Absorption, and Transport Learning Objectives After completing Chapter 3, the student will be able to: 3.1 Explain how foods move through the digestive system, describing the actions of the organs, muscles, and digestive secretions along the way. a. List the segments of the digestive tract in order from the mouth to the colon. b. Explain the mechanical processes of digestion in order of occurrence in the digestive tract. c. List the five organs and their secretions that assist in the breakdown of food. d. List the secretions that break down carbohydrates. e. List the secretions that break down protein. f. List the secretions that break down fat. 3.2 Describe the anatomical details of the intestinal cells that facilitate nutrient absorption. a. Explain the anatomy of the intestinal cells and their role in nutrient absorption 3.3 Explain how nutrients are routed in the circulatory systems from the GI tract into the body and identify which nutrients enter the blood directly and which must first enter the lymph. a. Explain the means by which the blood and nutrients travel throughout the circulatory system. b. Explain the path of fluid movement through the lymphatic system. 3.4 Describe how bacteria, hormones, and nerves influence the health and activities of the GI tract. a. Identify the hormones involved in digestive and absorptive processes. H3 Outline strategies to prevent or alleviate common GI problems. a. Apply the concepts presented in the chapter to explain common digestive tract problems. Glossary Chapter Key Terms absorption: the uptake of nutrients by the cells of the small intestine for transport into either the blood or the lymph. o absorb = suck in aorta (ay-OR- tuh): the large, primary artery that conducts blood from the heart to the body’s smaller arteries. arteries: vessels that carry blood from the heart to the tissues. bolus (BOH-lus): a portion; with respect to food, the amount swallowed at one time. o bolos = lump capillaries (CAP-ill-aries): small vessels that branch from an artery. Capillaries connect arteries to veins. Exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste materials takes place across capillary walls. catalyst: a compound that facilitates chemical reactions without itself being changed in the process. cholecystokinin (COAL-ee-SIS-toe-KINE-in), or CCK: a hormone produced by cells of the intestinal wall. Target organ: the gallbladder. Response: release of bile and slowing of GI motility. chyme (KIME): the semiliquid mass of partly digested food expelled by the stomach into the duodenum. o chymos = juice crypts (KRIPTS): tubular glands that lie between the intestinal villi and secrete intestinal juices into the small intestine. digestion: the process by which food is broken down into absorbable units. o digest = take apart digestive system: all the organs and glands associated with the ingestion and digestion of food. gastrin : a hormone secreted by cells in the stomach wall. Target organ: the glands of the stomach. Response: secretion of gastric acid. gastrointestinal (GI ) tract

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