Fall_2006_social_psych

Fall_2006_social_psych - Introduction to Social Psychology...

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Introduction to Social Psychology Introduction to Social Psychology Some Orienting Positions of Social Psychology: Some Orienting Positions of Social Psychology: * Social Situations affect us powerfully, both through direct effects on behavior and through how we judge others * “Social situations” are more powerful determinants of behavior than are “individual dispositions” * Social Expectations create Social Reality and Internalized Individual Psychological States * When explaining or describing the behavior of others, people tend to commit “ The Fundamental Attribution Error,” which is … * A related concept is the Actor/Observer Difference : * Observers ( persons explaining the behavior of others ) tend to commit the fundamental attribution error * Actors ( persons explaining their own behavior ) commit the error much less frequently, commonly explaining/describing their own behavior as related to situational factors Illustration: The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Figure: * Step 1: Perceiver Impression Formation (Expectations are both actively formed and passively received ) * Step 2: Perceiver Behaves Consistently with Expectations (perceiver expectations are communicated/expressed , often nonverbally and with minimal, if any, consciousness of so-doing) * Step 3: Target’s Behavior Adjusts (Unconsciously/reactively) to Perceiver Expectation Robert Rosenthal’s Analysis in the VideoClip on Self-Fulfilling Prophesy in IQ Robert Rosenthal’s Analysis in the VideoClip on Self-Fulfilling Prophesy in IQ Scores: Scores: * Brief Review of the experiment: * IV: * DV: * Results:
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Did Teacher Expectations Affect IQ? * Rosenthal’s Analysis of Four Purported Causal Factors/Mechanisms * Climate: * Input: * Response Opportunity: * Feedback: * Theoretical Point: Social Expectations/Beliefs influenced Teacher Behavior and relationships which came to shape and construct real external and internal realities for students Another Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Effect: Videotape on Welding Students Another Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Effect: Videotape on Welding Students * What is the IV? * What are the several different DV’s Discussed? * 1) * 2) * 3) * 4) VideoClip on Prejudice: the Social Construction of Differences and the VideoClip on Prejudice: the Social Construction of Differences and the Formation and Internalization of Biased Stereotypes Formation and Internalization of Biased Stereotypes * Jane Elliot’s Riceville, Iowa, 1968 3rd grade experiment * What is the IV? * What are some of the DV’s? * “Social Fact” becomes objective fact * Indicators of Differences are: * Institutionalized * Rules/Norms/Expectations are Formed * Subjective Social Reality Becomes THE Reality * In prejudice and stereotyping we see the operation of a “ Confirmation Bias ” wherein social perceivers differentially attend to and then store in memory social information, as illustrated next. *
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Fall_2006_social_psych - Introduction to Social Psychology...

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